Open Access Method Article

On General Mathematical Constraints Applying to the Kinetics of Species Discovery during Progressive Sampling: Consequences on the Theoretical Expression of the Species Accumulation Curve

Jean Béguinot

Advances in Research, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/31791

The “Species Accumulation Curve” accounts for the rate of increase of the number of recorded species during progressive sampling of an assemblage of species. Due to the usual incompleteness of samplings, the accurate extrapolation of the Species Accumulation Curve has become an essential tool to estimate the total species richness of a sampled assemblage and to predict the additional sampling effort required to obtain a given increase of sample completeness. In this perspective, important efforts have been devoted to improve the accuracy of the extrapolation of the Species Accumulation Curves. Substantial progress in this respect was achieved recently by considering a general mathematical relationship that constrains the theoretical expression of any kind of Species Accumulation Curves. Moreover, this general relationship proves having interesting corollaries applying specifically to the detailed process of species accumulation during progressive sampling.

Hereafter, I first derive these correlative relationships and then I show how they link together the variations of the numbers of species respectively recorded 1-, 2-, 3- …, x- times and their cumulative contributions to the Species Accumulation Curve. This, in turn, provides suggestive insights regarding the remarkably regulated mechanism of species discovery and accumulation during progressive sampling effort.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Socio-demographic Variables on Knowledge of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension among Pregnant Women in Ekiti State Nigeria

Emily O. Adeloye, Seyi E. Ogunsile, Samuel O. Arogba

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/30754

Aim: This study was conducted to assess knowledge of pregnancy induced hypertension among pregnant women in Ekiti state and to determine the influence of socio-demographic variables on their knowledge.

Study Design: Descriptive research design was adopted in this study.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted in selected health facilities within the three senatorial districts in Ekiti State between April and June 2016.

Methodology: Three hundred pregnant women were randomly selected from six health facilities within the three senatorial districts of Ekiti State. Data was collected using an 18-item self-structured questionnaire. Data collected were subjected to analysis using SPSS version 16. Demographics were analysed using frequency counts and percentages while inferential statistics of linear regression was used to determine the influence of socio-demographic variables on knowledge at 0.05 level of significance.

Results: 56.6% of the pregnant women had good knowledge and all the socio-demographic variables tested jointly contributed to the pregnant women’s knowledge (R=.348, R2 = .121, F (4, 295) = 6.85, p < .05). Source of information had the highest contribution on respondents’ knowledge of pregnancy induced hypertension (b = .33, t (295) = 5.46, p < .05).

Conclusion: Health education intervention to improve the knowledge of pregnancy induced hypertension among pregnant women in Ekiti State is required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mathematical Analysis of Optimal Control Theory on Underweight

Nita H. Shah, Foram A. Thakkar, Bijal M. Yeolekar

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/30992

To achieve increase in the number of healthy people in the society, proper information and understanding about health care issues is required. This will bring about improvement and betterment of the health of the population, especially to the girls and women of the society who are welcoming the new generation. Females need to take an adequate amount of healthy and nutritive food in their daily life for themselves as well as for the development and well-being of the new generation so as to prevent malnutrition and underweight which may cause deficiency in the various parts and organs of the body. In this paper, we want to study the transmission of malnutrition and underweight individuals in the society. The strategy in terms of healthy life campaign and treatment for healthy individual in the society is focussed. The model is supported with numerical simulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

A New Combination Fungicide Active Ingredients for Management of Sheath Blight Disease of Paddy

D. Pramesh, Maruti ., A. Saddamhusen, K. M. Muniraju, G. S. Guruprasad

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/31774

Aims: Present study was under taken to determine the field efficacy of a new combination fungicide azoxystrobin 11% + tebuconazole 18.3% w/w SC against sheath blight disease of rice.

Study Design: Randomized complete block design (RCBD).

Place and Duration of Study: All India Co-ordinated Rice improvement Programme, Agricultural Research Station, Gangavathi (5.4319° N, 76.5315° E), Karnataka, India, during Kharif  2014 and Rabi 2014-15.

Methodology: Experiment was designed with seven treatments of three replications each. A new formulations viz., azoxystrobin 11% + tebuconazole 18.3% w/w SC was tested in three dosages (500, 750 & 1000 g/ha) along with other fungicidal treatments such as  azoxystrobin 23% SC at 500 gm/ha, tebuconazole 25.9% EC at 750 g/ha and validamycin 3% L at 2000 g/ha. Bioefficacy was analysed after spraying all the test chemicals thrice at 15 days interval starting from initiation of the disease.

Results: The combination fungicide azoxystrobin 11% + tebuconazole 18.3% w/w SC at 1000 ml/ha was found effective against sheath blight disease recording least percent disease index (PDI) of 10.93 during Kharif 2014. Similar result was observed in Rabi 2014-15 where same test fungicide azoxystrobin 11% + tebuconazole 18.3% at 1000 ml/ha recorded the least PDI of 11.60. Compared to azoxystrobin 11% + tebuconazole 18.3%, other test fungicides such as azoxystrobin 23% SC, tebuconazole 25.9% EC and validamycin 3% L recorded highest PDI in both Kharif 2014 and Rabi 2014-15. Significant increases in the grain yield over other treatments (7527 kg/ha) was observed in the plots treated with test chemical azoxystrobin 11% + tebuconazole 18.3% w/w SC at 1000 ml/ha in Kharif 2014 and  5796 kg/ha in Rabi 2014-15. Whereas, other fungicidal treatments recorded the yield range of 5925-6217 kg/ha in Kharif 2014 and 4584 – 5682 kg/ha in Rabi 2014-15.

Conclusion: Present investigation  provides the field efficacy of the fungicide mixture Azoxystrobin 11% + Tebuconazole 18.3% w/w SC  at 750-1000 ml/ha for management of sheath blight disease of paddy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Color Stability of Freeze-dried Date Fruits (Barhi CV.) during Storage

Khaled A. M. Ahmed, Nasser M. El Ashmawy

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/31168

Fresh Date fruits “Barhi CV.” were freeze dried as slices to characterize the dried fruit quality. CIELAB color parameters (L*, a*, and b*) were measured as well as Chroma, the hue angle, the browning index and the total color difference parameters were derivative. The samples were stored for 12 months at three temperatures of 5, 15 and 25°C with an uncertainty of ±1°C to assess the color change kinetics and quantify the degree of change during storage. The L*, a* and b* values for fresh samples at room temperature were 93.16±0.15, 18.76±0.45 and 61.70±0.32, respectively, while they were 78.72±0.51, 29.52±0.07 and 62.75±0.14 after 12 months.

To explain the changing kinetics of the date slices, zero, first and second order models were attempted. Based on statistical analysis, the first-order model was found to be the best model for all CIELAB parameters. Analysis on the kinetic constants reveals that the temperature could affect the resulting color of the dried product,  in turn, it contributes to the color changes of the freeze dried Barhi during storage. The values obtained for the activation energy for freeze-dried Barhi based on the selected models were between 4930 and 10850 kJ. mol-1 which were somewhat different from the reported values due to the variation in sample’s type, treatment or process.