Open Access Short Research Article

Variety and NPK Rate Effect on Growth and Yield of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) in the Bediese Soil Series at Asante Mampong in Ghana

Kwame Nkrumah Hope, Mohammed Mujitaba Dawuda, Alex Otabil

Advances in Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/29940

Cabbage is one of the major vegetables cultivated on large scale in Asante Mampong for sale in the Ashanti Region and beyond. Low yield due to low yielding cultivars and inappropriate use of fertilizers is a setback in cabbage production in the area. The growth and yield response of three cabbage varieties to three NPK (15:15:15) rates was evaluated in a 3 x 3 factorial experiment conducted in Asante Mampong, Ghana in 2015. The cabbage varieties (Sahel F1, Fortune and Super Cross) and NPK rates (90 kg/ha, 120 kg/ha and 150 kg/ha) were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. With the exception of root weight, there was no significant interaction effect of the treatments on the parameters studied. Although the number of leaves per plant was similar among the fertilizer rates, the higher NPK rates resulted in more leaves. The application of 120 kg/ha NPK gave the greatest yield (28.1 t/ha) and this was 18.9% and 17.8% more than the 150 kg/ha and 90 kg/ha rates respectively. The variety, Fortune, had the greatest head circumference, head diameter and head weight and it gave the greatest yield (29.2 t/ha). Application of 120 kg/ha NPK (15:15:15) and cultivation of the Fortune variety could help increase the yield and possibly income of cabbage growers in Asante Mampong.

Open Access Original Research Article

Repair and Strengthening of R.C Flat Slab Connection with Edge Columns against Punching Shear

K. M. El-Sayed, N. N. Khalil, M. I. Omar

Advances in Research, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/30352

Aims: Study the repair and strengthening of the flat slab-edge column connections against punching shear.

Study Design: Parametric study is carried out by varying the repair and strengthening number of stirrups rows and the stirrups materials.

Methodology: This paper study the effect of using of Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) systems to strengthen and repair the flat slab-edge column connections subjected to punching shear. These systems is an exterior stirrups manufactured from glass, carbon fibers and steel links. Test results of thirteen half-scale specimens reinforced concrete flat slab-edge column connections were prepared to be tested under vertical punching shear load. The experimental plan for this study included one specimen not strengthened nor repaired which used as control specimen. Six specimens strengthened by exterior stirrups manufactured from Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP), Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) and steel links, respectively, three specimens strengthened by one row and the another three strengthened by two rows. Six specimens repaired by exterior stirrups manufactured from (CFRP), (GFRP) and steel links, respectively, three specimens repaired by one row and the another three strengthened by two rows. Also, the experimental ultimate loads were compared to the calculated values according to ACI 440.

Results: The test results were the ultimate load, load-deflection relationships, punching shear resistance, relative ductility, flexural stiffness & punching shear angle.

Conclusion: The test results illustrated punching shear strength increasing and an increasing in flexural stiffness for the strengthened and the repaired specimens compared to the control one. In addition, the strengthened and the repaired tested specimens illustrated enhancement in relative ductility and increase in angle of punching shear. The calculated ultimate loads based on ACI 440 procedures were below the experimental ones by 32 to 66%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Water Management Structures on Household Food Security Status among the Smallholder Farmers in Kilifi Sub-county, Kenya

J. M. Chege, E. M. Muindi

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/28888

Inadequate quality-water is a major hindrance to rural development and food security in arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya. Technologies that can promote water harvesting and conservation are, therefore, instrumental in increasing resilience in recurring droughts and enhancing food security in these dry lands. A study was carried out in Kilifi sub- County in the coastal areas of Kenya one of the areas where food insecurity incidences are prevalent. The study aimed at assessing the influence of water management structures on food security status among smallholder farming communities. Non experimental design using descriptive survey was adopted for the study. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression to measure the contribution of water harvesting structures and irrigation to food security status. Water harvesting structures examined were: contour terraces, water pans, trash lines, boreholes, and unploughed strips. The results indicated that 80% of the respondents were food insecure. The respondents who adopted boreholes and unploughed strips were 2% food secure while those who adopted water pans and trash lines were 4% food secure respectively. Additionally, those who adopted contour terraces were (8%) food secure compared to other water harvesting structures. There was a significant (P=0.05) positive relationship between the water management structures and food security This implies that contour terraces, water pans, water harvesting structures being economical, possession of title deed and land size are some of the most significant issues affecting food security in Kilifi Sub-county. To further enhance the understanding of food security and improve food insecurity status in Kilifi Sub-county, adoption of water harvesting structures should be promoted by all stakeholders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of ICT in Teaching and Learning: Influence of Lecturers on Undergraduates in Tanzania

Yazidu Saidi Mbalamula

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/30283

Reconnaissance to investigate on the integration of ICTs is not novel, and in case higher learning institutions in Tanzania as it is elsewhere remains indispensable to augment pragmatic corpus of knowledge and practice on ICTs integration in panoramic educational contexts. This study investigate on the influence of lecturers have on their students’ use of ICTs in learning. Three objectives are adopted to determine essential ICT Skills needed by student-teachers in learning; to examine lecturers’ usage of ICTs in teaching process; and to determine cause-effect relationships between lecturers’ ICTS usage in teaching and student-teachers’ use of ICT in learning. A survey design ensuing quantitative methodology to collect and analyze the data from sample of 97 student-teachers.  The data were analyzed using Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The major posits of the study divulged that ICT skills are not only essential for construction of knowledge, but also essential for identifying useful information for learning. Also, the Lecturers consider ICT as a major tool in teaching. Moreover, though there was moderate relationship between lecturers’ use of ICT in teaching has and student use in learning, lecturers’ use of ICTs in teaching process significantly influence student teachers’ use of ICTs in learning process. Generally, student teacher perceptions and ultimate use are dependent on self conceived usefulness of the ICT skills in learning, which in turn contingent to extent lecturers apply ICTs in their daily teaching and learning practices. Four major implications have been proposed in this paper for improving practice and theory.

Open Access Original Research Article

Torsional Behavior of RC Beams with Opening Using (CFRP - GFRP - Steel) Stirrups

M. H. Makhlouf

Advances in Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/30247

This paper presents the torsional behavior of R.C. beams strengthened with externally steel stirrups, steel links and Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) systems, R.C beams with web opening subjected to pure torsion. A total six rectangular beams were tested. Two un-strengthened specimens without and with web opening, which considered as control specimen, the rest four beams with web opening which one specimens strengthened with external steel stirrups, one specimen strengthened with steel links, one specimen strengthened with external stirrups made from Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP), and one specimen strengthened with external stirrups made from Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP). All the beams were subjected to pure torsion till failure. The type of strengthening material and system is the basic parameter in this study. The experimental results showed a noticeable increase in torsion resistance for the strengthened specimens compared to control specimen. In comparison with control beam, the ultimate torsional moment increased up to 287% for beam strengthened with steel links, up to 134 % for beam strengthened with CFRP and increase capacity of beams with, and up to 100% for beam strengthened with GFRP stirrups.

An analytical model was proposed and applied to predict the torsional strength of the tested RC beams, the predicted strengths were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Steady MHD Fluid Flow in a Bifurcating Rectangular Porous Channel

W. I. A. Okuyade, T. M. Abbey

Advances in Research, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/26399

Steady MHD fluid flow in a bifurcating rectangular porous channel is presented. The governing nonlinear equations are solved analytically by the methods of similarity transformation and regular perturbation series expansions. Expressions for the temperature, concentration and velocity are obtained and analyzed graphically. The results show that increase in bifurcation angle and Grashof numbers increase the transport velocity, whereas the increase in the magnetic field parameter decreases it. Furthermore, it is seen that an increase in bifurcation angle increases the temperature of the flow.

Open Access Original Research Article

Low Bit Rate Speech Coding Using Differential Pulse Code Modulation

Shahnawaz Uddin, Iffat Rehman Ansari, Sameena Naaz

Advances in Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/30234

Generally, the voice samples are very much correlated with their past/ future samples and this feature has been exploited in the present research work. Here, various voice samples have been encoded with lower number of bits as compared to the original voice samples without much deterioration in the voice quality. We have developed a code using C-programming language on UNIX platform by applying Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM) algorithm (using 4, 5, & 6-bits/ sample) on the original voice samples in Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) form (i.e., 8-bits/ sample). The results, thus obtained, differ in quality depending upon the correlation between the adjacent samples of the original voice and number of bits/ sample used for encoding.