Open Access Method Article

On a Class of Universal Probability Spaces: Case of Complex Fields

Mahkame Megan Khoshyaran

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/29924

The objective of this paper is to extend the Universal Probability Space (UPS) in [1] to include
complex events. The UPS consists of Borel sets, elements of which are tensors. It is shown that
the UPS has a defined metric and this metric is in fact the probability measure (P). The metric as a
probability measure is proven to exist for any tensor event (x ∈ Rd) in the space of all tensor fields,
(Rd). In this paper it is shown that for any complex event, (x ∈ Cd) in a space of all complex tensor
fields, (Cd), a probability measure (P) in the form of a metric exists. To this effect several theorems
are introduced and proven, mainly by modifying concepts introduced in [2], [3], [4], [5], to include
complex fields. Finally following [6], [7], [8], a case is demonstrated in order to compare probability
as a metric for complex events with classical probability. The objective of the case study is to show
that metric probability is a more realistic measure than classical probability for complex events.

Open Access Original Research Article

Andragogy and Classic Grounded Theory: Hidden Connections

Barry Chametzky

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/29004

Aims: It is valuable to glean significance from the way in which two seemingly diverse elements are connected with one another. In this research, this author critically compares and analyzes seemingly dissimilar elements in education—the theory of andragogy and the research design of classic grounded theory—in order to elucidate inherent parallels. As relationships and similarities made from heretofore unknown connections are uncovered, new perspectives develop. These new viewpoints, in turn, lead to the creation of new knowledge—one important objective of scholarly research. By examining several commonalities in andragogy and classic grounded theory, educational scholars, educators, and novice researchers will gain a more nuanced understanding of these concepts and of the complex world of education.  Additionally, with this increased sensitivity, scholars would be able to ascertain additional nuances thereby bridging a gap, so to speak, between the two practices.

Study Design: Comparative analysis.

Conclusion: Connections discovered in this paper will help future researchers create new knowledge—the ultimate goal of scholarship.

Open Access Original Research Article

Open Access Original Research Article

Fixed Doses Combinations Acting on Cardiovascular System - Utilization and Generic Competition

Z. Mitkova, M. Manova, S. Georgieva, G. Petrova

Advances in Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/29264

Aims: To analyze the impact of introduction of new fixed dose combinations (FDCs) in the Positive drug list on both the reference price and the utilization of reimbursed cardiovascular (CV) medicines.

Study Design: It is a retrospective and observational analysis of the changes in reimbursed fixed dose combinations (FDCs) acting on cardiovascular system (CVS).

Place and Duration of Study: Medical University of Sofia, Faculty of Pharmacy for the period 2009-2013.

Methodology: On total 18 INNs (international nonproprietary name) in different combinations belonging to 6 anatomic therapeutic chemical (ATC) groups (ACE-inhibitor and diuretic, Ca-antagonists and ACE-inhibitors, sartan and diuretics, Ca-antagonist and statin, two diuretics, b-blocker and diuretic); 60 dosage forms, and 104 trademarks were analyzed for changes in the prices and utilization after the inclusion in the Positive drug list (PDL).

Results: The number of the new generic medicines included in PDL is highest for the group of ACE -inhibitors and diuretics, angiotensin receptor blockers (AT receptor blockers, ARBs, sartans) and diuretics. Many new generic molecules as FDCs enter the PDL, thus leading to decrease in the reference price, because of generic competition. The decrease is significant in the new therapeutic groups. The changes in utilization calculated as defined daily dose (DDD)/1000 inhabitants/day show higher utilization in 2013 for the groups of ACE inhibitors and diuretics and AT receptor blockers and diuretics (Enalapril/ Hydrochlorthiazide (HCTZ), Perindopril/ Indapamide, Valsartan/HCTZ, Losartan/ HCTZ).

Conclusion: The study confirms that in Bulgaria the generic and therapeutic competition has increased during 2009-2013. It leads to significant price decrease and changes in the trends in utilization of the FDC in cardiology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Students' Level of Cognitive Engagement to Achieve English Language Curriculum Objectives at International Islamic School, Gombak

Abubakar Sani, Che Noraini Hashim

Advances in Research, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/29456

This study evaluates the level of cognitive engagement in English class among secondary school students of International Islamic School in Gombak, Malaysia. Specifically, the objective of this research is to appraise the students' commitments in English class by observing their level of cognitive engagement, which can be deep or shallow; and this is done considering their gender, age and grades. The school has five grades (7-11) and the research was conducted in January 2014. It involves 191 participants (male and female) by using purposive sampling, ages range between 13 to 18 years. Data were obtained through questionnaire, which contains a 5-point Likerts scale. However, descriptive statistics was used to describe the level of cognitive engagement employed by the students in English language class. Thus, the overall results show that deep engagement is more associated with male students while shallow engagement is associated with their female counterparts. In terms of age, the result reveals those students of the ages 13, 14, 15, and 18, display deep engagement than their colleagues aged 12, 16 and 17. Similarly, concerning grade, students in grade 9 and 10, display deep engagement; whereas those in grade 7, 8, and 11 display shallow engagement in English language class. Therefore, it is recommended that, English teachers should employ all possible efforts in teaching and organizing activities that would enhance females’ attitudes towards deep engagement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hybird, Solar and Biomass Energy System for Heating Greenhouse Sweet Coloured Pepper

S. M. Abdellatif, N. M. El Ashmawy, M. K. El-Bakhaswan, H. H. Tarabye

Advances in Research, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/30019

The main drawback of greenhouse heating systems based on solar energy is the unavailability at nighttime and the variation of its value from hour to hour and month to another during daylight-time. However, use the combination of two-source of renewable energy (solar energy and biomass heat energy) successfully provides appropriate amount of heat energy for heating greenhouse at nighttime. The commercial greenhouses have the highest demand of heat energy for heating the indoor air as compared with other agricultural industry sectors. The investigation presented in this article is aimed at evaluating the technical and design feasibility of using biomass heat energy to assist the solar energy heating system at the eastern area of coastal delta, Egypt (Latitude and longitude are 31.045º N and 31.37º E, respectively, and altitude 6.0 m above the sea level). The hybrid heating system (solar and biomass heating systems) is mainly consists of two different heating systems, a complete solar heating system (6 collectors, storage tank and heat exchanger) and biomass burner (water and air coils, and air heat exchanger). The obtained results reveal that, over 180 days heating season (from November 2015 to March 2016) the solar heating system collected 12712 kWh (45.763 GJ) of which 12316 kWh (44.338 GJ) of solar heat energy was stored in the storage tank. It provided 30.32% of the total heat energy required for heating the greenhouse. The biomass heating system provided 19795 kWh (71.262 GJ) of heat energy which provided 58.55% of the total heat energy required for heating the greenhouse (225.389 kWh). Ultimately, the heat energy provided by the hybrid heating system (88.87%) has been used successfully to heat up the indoor air of the commercial greenhouse sweet coloured pepper.

Open Access Original Research Article

Foundation Soil Characterisation for a Building with Multiple Cracks at Tarkwa, Ghana

George M. Tetteh, Festus A. Mensah, Bernard Ofosu

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/30096

Formation of cracks on buildings could be attributed to many factors such as properties of soils, geology, structural defects and climatic conditions. A public building at Tarkwa in the Western Region of Ghana developed cracks that rendered it unsafe and so it was demolished for a new structure to be put in place. Geotechnical investigations were undertaken to ascertain possible contributions of the foundation soils to development of these cracks before it was demolished. Site investigations on test holes and laboratory analyses showed that, the foundation soils were mainly dense silty sand, with average moisture content of 8.9% and specific gravity of 2.7 Kg/m3. These characteristics are typical of quartz sands. Though the soil at the site where the building was situated was non-plastic, plasticity index (PI) for soils at neighbouring sites ranged from 1.5% to 7.8% at an average of 4.9% and so consolidation immediately after structural loading was negligible and might not result in differential settling. Moisture content was lower than liquid limit as liquidity indices were between -0.326 to -12.653. These soils exhibited minimal liquefaction potential and were free draining. They were of high permeability and therefore could consolidate immediately after being subjected to structural load. Hence the foundation soils played little role in the formation of cracks on the building which was exposed to frequent ground vibration as the building was close to a defunct underground mine, heavy vehicular traffic and a railway station; with surface mining activities at a permitted distance.