Open Access Original Research Article

Prediction of Oilfield Scale formation Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN)

O. A. Falode, C. Udomboso, F. Ebere

Advances in Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/27008

Scale formation and deposition is a recurring problem in many oil producing fields leading to operational problems, problems in reservoirs, pumps, valves and topside facilities. Scale is described economically as a menace to an oil-field because its build-up clogs the flow lines and causes loss of millions of dollars yearly. The ability to predict the onset and amount of scale formation has been a major challenge in the oil industry. Previous models for predicting scale formation have focused mainly on thermodynamics and limited solubility data, and can predict only the potential or tendency to form scale. However, no studies have considered the influence of kinetic and transport factors. In this paper, a comprehensive and robust model incorporating other factors that have been ignored in past studies is developed using the technique of artificial neural network (ANN).

Field data on two types of scale namely Barium and Calcium sulphate were obtained, processed, trained and tested with Artificial Neural Network. The model obtained was validated with actual   data. Results show that at constant pressure, the neural network structure with optimum performance for BaSO4 was ANN {1,2,1} with the lowest Mean Square Value (MSE) of 0.0025                                            and the highest correlation determination (R2) of 0.9966 while at constant temperature, it was ANN{1,1,1} with MSE of 0.0017 and R2 of 0.9956. The neural network structure with optimum performance for CaSO4 precipitation kinetics with temperature and pressure was ANN{2,5,1} with MSE of 8.7745e-005 and R2 of 0.8206 while at constant flow rate it was ANN{1,4,1} with MSE of 2.3007e-006 and R2 of 0.9953. This gave a very close agreement with actual data in terms of prediction and performance. The results of this study therefore will greatly help to reduce the amount of risk incurred (such as NORM, etc.) due to the deposition and formation of scale in an oil-field, the cost of stimulating an oil flow line and also improve the productivity of an oil well, hence, increase  revenue to the  oil industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimal Solution for the Intuitionistic Fuzzy Assignment Problem via Three Methods-IFRMM, IFOAM, IFAM

S. Krishna Prabha, S. Vimala

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/28088

An Assignment Problem mainly deals with allocation and scheduling. In this work Intuitionistic Fuzzy Assignment Problem (IFAP) with the Trapezoidal Intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (TIFNS) is solved by using three different methods namely Intuitionistic Fuzzy Reduced Matrix Method (IFRMM), Intuitionistic Fuzzy Ones Assignment Method (IFOAM) and Intuitionistic Fuzzy Approximation Method (IFAM). A numerical example is illustrated to explain the above methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Relative Humidity on the Performance of Shaver Brown Hens in a Humid Tropical Environment

M. O. Okpara, C. F. Egbu, A. O. Ani

Advances in Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/7547

A total of seventy five Shaver Brown hens in their 4th week of lay were used in a study conducted to determine the effect of different relative humidity conditions on the performance of Shaver Brown hens under humid tropical environment. Hens were housed individually in separate cages. The hens were supplied with water ad libitum and fed on layers mash containing 16.5% crude protein and 2650 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy for 10 weeks. Relative humidity were recorded 3-hourly at time intervals of 0600 h, 0900 h, 1200 h, 1500 h, and 1800 h using a standard hygrometer and the mean daily relative humidity noted. The climatic data taken during the period of the experiment showed that the study area had the natural day-length of 13 to 14 hours; mean maximum weekly indoor and outdoor temperatures of 27.9°C to 29.2°C and 26.8°C to 30.5°C, respectively; mean minimum weekly indoor and outdoor temperatures of 20.5°C to 22.3°C and 20.0°C to 23.60°C, respectively; relative humidity of 73.1% to 76.6% and mean total monthly rainfall of 781.33 mm. Results showed that relative humidity significantly affected total egg production, average daily feed intake and Haugh unit. The results of the present study indicate that although relative humidity had effect on performance, Shaver Brown hens are adapted to humid tropical environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Agricultural Wastes as a Biofilter Media for Low-Cost Wastewater Treatment Technology

Mohamed R. Ghazy, Mohamed A. Basiouny, Mahmoud H. Badawy

Advances in Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/27926

Aims: The main objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of biofilters with different agricultural wastes media, which widely exist in many regions without being economically used, namely rice straw, date palm fiber and wood chips of orange trees. Using agriculture waste as a biofilter media for municipal wastewater treatment and reducing the accumulation of agricultural waste is an important option to reduce the wastewater treatment cost and for the environmentally safe disposal of agricultural waste in Egypt.

Study Design:  Pilot study is conducted to investigate the efficiency of three types of agricultural wastes; rice straw, wood chips, orange trees and date palm fiber as a filter media and bio-film material carrier for municipal wastewater treatment.

Place and Duration of Study: Benha Faculty of engineering, Benha university, Egypt. Between March 21th and October 10th, 2015.

Methodology: The removal efficiency of different municipal wastewater parameters is evaluated through column experiments under different operational conditions for hydraulic rates of 4.8, 6, 8 and 12 m3/m2/d and medium size of fibers of 2 cm, 4 cm, 6 cm and 8 cm. Samples from four different depths for each media are tested to study the effect of depth change in the removal efficiency.

Results: The removal efficiency of the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) was (81.5%±4.8, 88.3%±2.8, and 66.7±5.2) for rice straw, date palm fiber and wood chips of orange trees, respectively. The removal efficiency of the studied biofilter media for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal was (79.7±5 for rice straw, 88.3±3 for date palm fiber and 64.6±7.24 for wood chips of orange trees. Moreover, the removal efficiency of Total Suspended Solid (TSS) was (82.43±4.9, 86.6±3.9, and 68.3±3.5) for rice straw, date palm fiber and wood chips of orange trees, respectively. The removal efficiency of total nitrogen (N) was (50.21%±2.32, 55%±1.31 and 45±2.38) for rice straw, date palm fiber and wood chips of orange trees, respectively. While The percentage of total phosphorus (P) removal efficiency was 41.92±4.14 for rice straw, 50.52±1.32 for date palm fiber and 32.45±2.30 for wood chips of orange trees.

Conclusion: The study revealed that the using of agricultural wastes as biofilter media could be a favorable choice for the biological treatment of municipal wastewater. Date palm fiber was the most efficient media in the removal of wastewater pollutions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Calcium Ion Binding Parameter of Human Salivary Alpha-amylase by Partial Inactivation Kinetics

Ikechukwu Iloh Udema

Advances in Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/27650

Aims: The aims were: i) To ascertain the applicability of a model for the determination of the effect of calcium depletion, to the effect of the presence of the calcium chloride, ii) Quantify the thermodynamic activation parameters for unfolding of the enzyme with increasing temperature at varying concentration of the salt, iii) To determine calcium binding parameters of the human salivary alpha amylase (HSaA) and cognate apparent thermodynamic parameters. 

Study Design:  Experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Ambrose Alli University and Research Division of Ude International Concepts Limited (RC 862217) B. B. Agbor Delta, Nigeria. The research spanned between 2013 and 2016. 

Methodology: Bernfeld method of enzyme assay was used. Controls were free from calcium chloride. Crude human salivary alpha amylase was assayed at different thermodynamic temperatures for duration of 5 minutes.

Results: The Gibbs free energies of activation (DG#) at 4 mM and 1 mM CaCl2 (aq) at 318.15 K were 89.62±0.00 and 89.35±0.03 kJ/mol respectively. The corresponding enthalpies of activation were 6.82±0.038 and 3.07±0.09 kJ/mol and the entropies were -260.00±1.17 and -271.21±0.29 J/mol.K respectively. The apparent unfolding rate constant, ranged from 138.50±0.07 – 154.20±0.11 × 1/104/s. The DG# of unfolding as [CaCl2(aq)]→zero at 318.15 K is 89.22±0.01 kJ/mol. The entropy of activation was -279.12±19.20 J/mol.K. Calcium ion binding constant ranged from 42.39±2.47 – 46.81±1.31 1/M. The Gibbs free energy and entropy of calcium ion binding at 318.15 K were -9.94±0.08 kJ/mol and 55.08±0.25 J/mol.K respectively. The unfolding equilibrium constant ranged from 62.83±1.35 – 135.45±5.88; the enthalpy and entropy of unfolding were 33.96±0.13 kJ/mol and 143.96±0.09 J/mol.K respectively at 318.15 K.

Conclusion: The model for the calculation of apparent inactivation rate of the enzyme is applicable to calcium treated enzyme. High Gibbs free energy of activation is due to increased “barrier” to unfolding. Large negative entropy of activation was a reflection of a more ordered transition state. Calcium ion binding and unfolding as [CaCl2(aq)]→zero were spontaneous and entropically driven.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship of Visceral Obesity and BMI with Blood Pressure among Osun State College of Education Staff, Nigeria

E. Posi Aduroja, O. Olubukola Isola, Olufunso Akinboye, O. Dora Akinboye

Advances in Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/27342

Aims: To determine prevalence of visceral obesity, compare association of visceral obesity to Blood Pressure (BP) with association of Body Mass Index (BMI) to BP.

Study Design: Research was a cross-sectional survey study design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place in Osun State College of Education, Ilesa, Osun State, Nigeria, between November 2015 and April 2016.

Methodology: We included 231 members of staff. A semi-structured instrument (questionnaire) was used for data collection. Waist circumference was measured with a measuring tape. BMI was measured with a weighing scale and stadiometer. BP levels were determined with electronic sphygmomanometer. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21.

Results: There were 117 (50.7%) male and 99 (42.9%) female participants between the ages of 26 and 66 years. The results revealed that the prevalence of visceral obesity was high (71.4%) among the respondents while prevalence of 88.9% was recorded among the female participants. Dietary pattern of respondents was poor (35.16%), it was significantly associated with the development of visceral obesity [R2 = 0.190; F = 7.47; P < .001]. Social pressure from immediate family, was detected to be significantly associated with respondents’ intention towards reducing visceral obesity [R2 = 0.166; F = 45.704; P < .01]. Findings also revealed that visceral obesity was significantly associated with BP [R2= 0.155; F = 20.989; P < .01] and also significantly associated with BMI     [R2= 0.044; F = 5.235; P = 0.006].

Conclusion: Visceral obesity was more significantly associated with high BP than BMI; hence visceral obesity was a more accurate predisposing risk factor than BMI, in predicting susceptibility to hypertension. This study will improve health promotion, while creating awareness about visceral obesity.

Open Access Review Article

A Review: Optical Second – Harmonic Generation Enhancement via Plasmonic Surface - Theory and Applications

Nadia Mohammed Jassim

Advances in Research, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/27351

Plasmonics has arisen as an interested research field in nanoscience and nanotechnology with many potential applications in fields ranging from bioscience, information processing and communication to quantum optics. It is based on the generation, manipulation and transfer of surface plasmons (SPs) that have the ability to manipulate light at the nanoscale. Realizing plasmonic applications requires comprehension how the SP-based properties depend on the nanostructures and how these properties can be controlled. Lately, significant attention has been devoted to the noteworthy and the comprehensions of nonlinear optical processes in plasmonic nanostructures, giving create to the new research field called nonlinear plasmonics. This review   article gives a comprehensive understanding of physical mechanisms of one of these nonlinear optical processes, namely, second harmonic generation (SHG), with an focusing on the main differences with the linear response of plasmonic nanostructures. The main applications, ranging from the nonlinear optical characterization of nanostructure shapes to the optimization of laser beams at the nanoscale, are summarized and discussed. Future directions and developments, made possible by the unique combination of SHG surface sensitivity and field enhancements associated with surface plasmon resonances, are also addressed.