Open Access Short Research Article

Response of Rice to Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilization Based on Nutrient Critical Levels in Plants and Soils of Kilombero Valley

A. M. Kalala, N. A. Amuri, J. M. R. Semoka

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/26368

Phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) optimization is crucial for achieving high yields of rice. This study objective was to establish optimum rates and critical concentrations of P and K in soil and rice shoots using soils from Kilombero district, Tanzania. Two-screen house experiment was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 at Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), each using 10 soils collected from different sites in Kilombero valley. The first experiment had varied levels of P, namely 0, 40 and 80 mg kg-1 soil and the second with varied levels of K, namely 0, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 soil. Absolute control treatment was included in both experiments. Rice (variety TXD 306) was grown in pots arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that soil critical concentration of P was 8.0 mg kg-1 and the shoots- P critical concentration was 0.16%. Established critical concentration of K in soil was 0.2 cmol (+) kg-1 and the shoots- K concentration was 1.4%. Grain yield increased significantly for rice grown in seven and six out of ten soils tested due to an application of P and K, respectively. The study recommends 40 mg P and 400 mg K kg-1 soil as optimum rates for P and K fertilization, respectively in deficient soils, under screen house conditions. A study revealed that eight and nine out of 19 studied soils from Kilombero are deficient in P and K, respectively for rice production. It was concluded that P and K are yield-limiting nutrients and their applications and management are crucial in the paddy soils of Kilombero valley.

Open Access Short Research Article

Alectra vogelii, a Threat to Bambara Groundnut Production in Singida and Dodoma Regions, Tanzania

Ernest R. Mbega, Cornel R. Massawe, Ambonesigwe M. Mbwaga

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/11478


Aims: To document the occurrence and effect of Alectra vogelii on bambara groundnut yield in Tanzania.

Place and Duration of Study: Singida and Dodoma regions, Tanzania between 4th to 20th April 2014.

Methodology: The number of A. vogelii and of bambara groundnut plants per 2 m x 2 m quadrant in triplicates was counted per farm from nine different villages. The A. vogelii infestation was scored as 0 = no infestation, 1 = 1-5 (less severe), 2 = 6 – 10 (severe) and 3 = > 10 (very severe). The bambara groundnut yield loss was determined as (C-A)/ C x 100% or (C-B)/C X 100%, where C = Number of pegs in a non-infested plant, A =Number  of pegs in a wilted A. vogelii- infested plants and B = Number of pegs in yellowing or stunted- A. vogelii infested  plants

Results: The average number of A. vogelii was 55 plants infesting about 26 plants per quadrant. This number scored 3 (very severe) in a 0-3 scale. The highest number of pegs (90, 75 and 68) per plant was recorded in the non- infected bambara groundnut plants in Iramba, Dodoma urban and Ikungi Districts, respectively, while smaller number or no pegs was recorded in yellowing-A. vogelii infected or wilted-A. vogelii infected plants translating to a yield loss of 97.3–100%.

Conclusion: A. vogelii is a threat to bambara ground nut production in Tanzania. Yield losses of up to 100% have been recorded and this can affect growers who depend on the crop for their protein source. As no report from the literature showing the occurrence of A. vogelii in bambara groundnut in the country, we document its first report and effect on the yield of the crop in Tanzania. Future studies to determine distribution of A. vogelii in other bambara groundnut-growing areas are needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Computational Approach for the Solution of Some Electric Circuit Problems

J. Sunday, J. A. Kwanamu, A. I. Bakari

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/26794

This paper presents the derivation and implementation of a computational approach for the solution of some electric circuit problems. The one-step computational hybrid block method was developed using Legendre polynomial of degree six as our basis function via interpolation and collocation techniques. The computational method developed was applied on some practical problems in electricity to generate graphical results and also interpret the natures of these results. The paper went further to analyze the basic properties of the computational method derived. From the graphical results obtained, the computed solutions converge toward the exact solutions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Empirical Models and an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System for Estimating Hourly Total Solar Radiation on Horizontal Surface at Alexandria City, Egypt

Abdulwahab S. Kassem, Abdulwahed M. Aboukarima, Nasser M. El Ashmawy, Moamen F. Zayed

Advances in Research, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/27194

Solar radiation data in a particular location is an important factor for agricultural applications and others. To estimate solar radiation, empirical models have been developed using different meteorological parameters. Recently, prediction models based on artificial intelligence techniques such fuzzy logic are available. The aim of this work was to develop an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for estimating hourly total solar radiation on horizontal surface at Alexandria city, Egypt and to compare its efficiency with two empirical models namely clear sky hourly global solar radiation  and global solar flux on a horizontal surface. Local time, Julian day, air temperature, relative humidity and relative sunshine duration data for the period 2005-2007 were used as inputs to ANFIS model. Delta-T automatic weather station which was located on the roof-top of Agricultural and Bio-Systems Engineering Department, Faculty of Agricultural, Alexandria, Egypt was employed to collect the required data. In testing phase, good results with all prediction methods were obtained, with root mean square error values of 165.42, 168.37 and 82.287 W/m2 for clear sky hourly global solar radiation model, global solar flux on a horizontal surface model and ANFIS model, respectively. Meanwhile, coefficients of determination (R2) were 0.6428, 0.6355 and 0.8949, respectively for clear sky hourly global solar radiation model, global solar flux on a horizontal surface model and ANFIS model when utilized testing data set for the validation process. Even though all the investigated models can be used to predict the hourly total solar radiation on horizontal surface, ANFIS model produced better estimates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fabrication and Mechanical Property Evaluation of Ethiopia Banana Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Idiris Mehamud, Jegan Raj, Cheru Zeleke, Thomas Gebre

Advances in Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/26991

Banana and false banana fiber is important by-product of Ethiopian country farmers. The current work explains the characterization of different weight of a composite, natural fiber epoxy composites, by using hand lay-up technique and mechanical testing machine. Depending on the percentage of composite in resin, from 80%-95% by weight, which increasing the mechanical properties. SEM using to evaluate fiber, surface structure and fractured internal structure. The Experiment outcome illustrate that the impact strength, tensile strength and flexural strength are increased with the similar proportion as amount of epoxy (resin) increased. Scanning electron microscopy used to evaluate and analyze the experiment work. As well as form experimental result conclude that higher tensile, Impact and flexural strength exist at proportion of 80% epoxy resin with 20% banana fiber.

Open Access Original Research Article

Approximate Solutions of Nonsmooth Systems via Generalized Euler-Lagrange and Hamiltonian Equations

S. Soradi Zeid, M. Yousefi, A. Vahidian Kamyad

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/27621

Recently the traditional calculus of variations has been extended to be applicable for systems
containing nonsmooth function. In this paper, we have investigated the generalized derivative
of nonsmooth functions. The obtained results were applied to investigate the generalized Euler-
Lagrange and Hamilton equations for constrained system. The approach was applied within an

Open Access Original Research Article

Appraising Management Perception of Health Safety & Environment Culture in a Nigerian Petroleum Company

C. Faisal Emetumah

Advances in Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/27065

In order to effectively manage all pertinent production risks, the concept of Safety culture has evolved to include Health and environment facets in line with international best practices. Nonetheless the safety facet seems to be most considered in literature to the detriment of the environmental and health facets despite their relevance in sustainably managing production processes. The aim of the study is to assess managers’ perception of Health, Safety & Environment (HSE) culture so as to understand the level of attention given to the individual facets. Relevant literature covering the aim of the study was reviewed; several safety culture models were also analyzed chronologically. The research design involved qualitative data gathering through semi structured interview questions for a sample of 21 management level employees who were purposively selected from a medium to large Nigerian petroleum company. Hudson's maturity model was used in determining the level for each HSE facet. Analyses of the study results show vital findings: management perceived HSE as either integrative or informative; security is an important part of HSE culture; performance tools identified were government supervision and self-audits. In conclusion, HSE culture was observed as a secondary objective; HSE culture was still reactionary and pathological in maturity. The study recommends more employee involvement in HSE decision making, instituting a comprehensive HSE legislation and using technology in improving HSE performance.