Open Access Method Article

Theoretical Derivation of a Bias-reduced Expression for the Extrapolation of the Species Accumulation Curve and the Associated Estimation of Total Species Richness

Jean Béguinot

Advances in Research, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/26387

Under-sampling becomes the current situation for an increasing part of biodiversity surveys, as more and more speciose assemblages and increasingly complex taxonomic groups are progressively addressed. Accordingly, (i) extrapolating the Species Accumulation Curve and (ii) estimating the total species richness of partially-sampled species assemblages (or taxonomic-groups) both become major issues for many naturalists nowadays. Numerous different solutions have been proposed to address these issues. Yet, no general consensus has been reached regarding which particular solution among them should be preferred according to each case. This unsatisfactory situation follows from the empirical nature of traditional approaches, especially regarding the extrapolation of the Species Accumulation Curve.

Fortunately, reconsidering the problem on decidedly more theoretical basis, including the consideration of general mathematical relationships universally constraining the expression of any theoretical (or rarefied) Species Accumulation Curves, allows a more relevant modeling for the extrapolation of species accumulation. In turn, this theoretical approach provides a rational key to select the more appropriate, less biased type of species-richness estimator and the associated, less biased expression for the extrapolation of the Species Accumulation Curve, according to the context of sampling. In particular, the wide relevance of the series of ‘Jackknife-type’ estimators is highlighted (as had been already argued for specific cases, on semi-empirical basis). In practice, selecting the less biased extrapolation of the Species Accumulation Curve allows to forecast the supplementary sampling effort necessary to reach a given increase of sampling completeness more accurately than the usual procedures, involving arbitrarily chosen empirical models.

Open Access Original Research Article

Body Sway and Muscle Activity during Assisted One-and Two-leg Stances in the Elderly

Yu Uchida, Shin-ichi Demura

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/19326

One-leg stance (OLS) training is recommended to prevent falls in elderly people. However, most elderly have difficulty in performing OLS for an extended period of time. Hence they need to use hand help when performing OLS training. The effects of hand help on body sway and leg muscle activity during OLS have been not been adequately investigated. This study aimed to compare the body sway and leg muscle activity during a two-leg stance (TLS) and OLS with front and lateral hand helps. Eleven elderly adults who were unable to perform OLS for 1 min (mean age, 79.6±5.3 years) participated in this study. Subjects wore electrodes on the gastrocnemius medialis, soleus, and tibialis anterior muscles of the supporting leg during TLS test, and one-leg stance with front support (OLS–FS) and lateral support (OLS–LS) for 1 min on a stabilometer. Muscle activity (mean %RMS and maximum %RMS) and body sway (total path length and X and Y axes path length) in the first, middle, and last periods were calculated and the differences among time periods (factor 1) and test methods (factor 2) were examined. All muscle activity and body sway variables showed significantly greater values during OLS–FS than during TLS. Gastrocnemius medialis and soleus muscle activity and Y axis path length during OLS–LS were significantly greater than during TLS, in a part of three time periods. Tibialis anterior muscle activity and X axis path lengths were significantly smaller during OLS–LS than during OLS–FS. In conclusion, regardless of hand help position, activity of the gastrocnemius medialis and soleus muscles during OLS with hand help is greater than during TLS. Tibialis anterior muscles activity and body sway in the left–right direction are greater during OLS–FS than during TLS and OLS–LS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Net Surface Heat Flux of Eastern Harbor, Alexandria Egypt using Different Techniques

Maged M. A. Hussein, Ebtisam E. E. Mohamed

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/26036

In this study, two different techniques have been applied to estimate the net surface heat flux (NSHF) of the Eastern Harbor. The first one based on equilibrium temperature which is easy and direct way to calculate NSHF from the sea in comparison to the traditional method (Bulk aerodynamic formula). This technique is based on short wave radiation, net long wave radiation and latent and sensible heat flux. Daily variability of NSHF has been studied during winter, spring and summer 2009-2010 and winter and summer 2010-2011, the surface meteorological data were collected from Nozha Air Port and sea surface temperature using the immersed temperature sensor at NIOF site. The out put NSHF values of the two techniques have the same trend and there are high correlation between them reached to 94% in winter 2009, 87% spring 2009, 97% summer 2010, 96% winter 2010 and 98% summer 2011. This gives us a good reason to apply the first technique to get NSHF. There is more heat loss (negative NSHF) during many days of the winter season and more heat gain (positive NSHF) during spring and summer seasons. Thermal exchange coefficient varies from 6.55 (W m-2 °C-1) to 22.4 (W m-2 °C-1) and it has a direct relationship with wind speed and inverse relationship with (NSHF) and equilibrium temperature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient Profile and Phytochemical Analysis of Commercially Cultivated Oyster Mushroom in Calabar, South-South Nigeria

U. O. Edet, R. U. B. Ebana, C. A. Etok, V. O. Udoidiong

Advances in Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/26196

The nutrient profile and phytochemical screening of commercially sold edible mushroom in Calabar Metropolis were investigated. The proximate composition revealed the presence of all the different classes of food except ether extract (fat). The oyster mushroom was made of 91.00% moisture and this was the highest followed by protein and carbohydrate with 31.93% and 35.07%, respectively. Mineral analysis showed that nitrogen was the most abundant mineral followed by potassium with values of 5.11% and 0.72% respectively. Vitamin analysis revealed the presence of vitamins A, B, C and E with B being the most abundant while the least abundant vitamin was A. Phytochemical screening of ethanolic and aqueous extracts showed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloid, glycosides, saponin, tannin, flavonoid, reducing compound, polyphenol, but not phlobatannin, anthraquinone and hydroxymethyl anthraquninone. Saponin, polyphenol and reducing compound on quantification were much higher than the rest of the bases with values 4.02, 3.16 and 4.59%, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Intersection Geometry and Control Type on Fuel Consumption Cost at Various Types at the Level of Service

A. M. Abdalla, M. A. Basiouny, Ahmed Khater

Advances in Research, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/26153

Aims: As motor vehicle volumes increase around the globe, further pressure is placed on limited financial budgets to fund projects that address traffic congestion on the road networks. This research aims at studying the traffic impact and financial resulted from the traffic congestion on the urban road networks.

Study Design: Through the study of the intersection geometry and control type impact on fuel consumption cost at different levels of service for roads.

Place and Duration of Study: Benha Faculty of engineering, Benha university, Egypt. Between November 2013 and Feb 2016. 

Methodology: The Sidra Intersection program was used to calculate the fuel consumption rate, cost of fuel and total cost of the different intersection geometry.

Results: Conclusion some relationships which illustrate the effect of the intersection geometry and control type impact on fuel consumption cost at different levels of service for roads.

Conclusion: We can decrease the fuel consumption rate, cost of fuel and total cost at different number of lanes due to various of intersection control type by improving levels of service for roads from F to A.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of Control Strategies for Microgrids

M. A. Aminu, K. Solomon

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/25722

Global demand for electrical energy has never been higher than it is currently. This high demand for electricity has driven need for innovative and sustainable power production schemes. The current power system is therefore challenged with the need for quality, reliable and sustainable power production. In most countries, the system is aging, making it require more resources to meet contemporary challenges, coupled with the requirements to maintain a clean environment and mitigate environmental disasters. These lead to the microgrid concept. Deployment and use of the microgrid comes with new challenges - control and protection. In this paper, some of the most obvious control challenges of microgrid operations have been articulated. Nine (9) of the recent control strategies in literature have also been presented in this paper, including a brief explanation on the fundamental principles of the proposed strategies. Finally, this paper also presents a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses associated with the control strategies in literature.

Open Access Review Article

Opuntia sp. Cactus: Biological Characteristics, Cultivation and Applications

Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva, Igor Felipe Andrade Costa de Souza, Maria Cláudia Valério Vicalvi Costa, Andréa de Fátima Silva Santos, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coel

Advances in Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/26125

In this review, we approached various aspects of Opuntia sp., a forage cactus.  This plant stand out for its energy potential and have peculiar morphological and physiological features that allow tolerance for long periods of drought. In addition, Opuntia species has a cosmopolitan distribution, found mainly in arid and semi-arid regions. Opuntia sp. presents phenotypic variations related to weather conditions, like polyploidy occurring in a large number of populations and high hybridization capacity. This plant has a shrub morphological characteristic with ramifications, variable size, from creeping until arboreal; it can reach up to 4 m high and a series of fleshy stems with, depending on time of year, flowers and fruits. Opuntia sp. has a typical physiology with the photosynthetic process called crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM); stomata close during the day in order to maintain hydration of tissues. The chemical composition of Opuntia sp. varies according to species, age of reticule, and season. The cactus has excellent nutritional value with high water content (about 90%), digestibility in vitro (about 75%) and vitamin A; in addition this plant has organic matter (67%), energy (2,61 Mcal.kg-1), crude fiber (4.3%), phosphorus (0.08 to 0.18%), calcium (4.2%), potassium (2.3%) and magnesium (1.4%), but shows low protein content (about 5%). The proper yield of the crop needs a climate with 400-800 mm annual rainfall, relative humidity above 40% and day/night temperature from 25 to 15°C. The wide variety of applications demonstrates the versatility of this plant species, being used in food and feed, agriculture, medicine, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, in water and wastewater treatments, and even as insecticide agent. Opuntia sp. have about 1500 species and O. ficus indica is the most important as forage and human uses.