Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation and Biomineralization of Injectable Hydrogel Composite Based Chitosan-tetronic and BCP Nanoparticles

Thi Phuong Nguyen, Ngoc Quyen Tran

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/25891

In this study, a hydrogel composite was enzymatically prepared with rapid gelation time from tyramine-tetronic-conjugated chitosan and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) nanoparticles. Compressive stress of the hydrogel composite was reached at 591±20 KPa with 10 wt% of loaded BCP. Degradation study of the material showed 20% of weight loss after 4 weeks. In vitro study with MG 63 osteoblast cell evidenced that the cells were well-attached on hydrogel composite surfaces. Biomineralization on the hydrogel composites surfaces was well-observed after soaking for 14 days in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. The obtained results indicated that the hydrogel composite could be an injectable potential material for bone regeneration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-economic Status Categories of Rural Dwellers in Northern Nigeria

Michael Adejare Adegboye

Advances in Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/21836

In other to provide information for inference on certain characteristics and behavioural tendencies of the rural dwellers in the northern Nigeria, this study was conducted to find out the socio-economic status categories of rural dwellers’ in the area. Random sampling technique was used to select 390 respondents from 30 villages in 3 of the northern Nigerian states. Interview schedule was used to collect data for the study. Majority of the respondents (58.9%) were between 31 and 50 years of age, male (52.6%), married (89.5%), educated (84.6%), farmers (73.1%) and low income earners (63.6%). The result also shows that 50.0% and 42.3% were in low and middle SES categories respectively. Significant relationship at p<0.05 existed between education (χ2 = 94.09), occupation (χ2 = 483.63) and socio-economic status of respondents. Similarly, correlation was discovered between age (r = 0.33, p = 0.00) and socio-economic status of respondents. In conclusion, half of the rural dwellers were in low socio-economic status category and only very few attained high socio-economic status category. Since there was significant relationship between education, occupation and socio-economic status, any improvement in the two variables will lead to improvement in socio-economic status of the rural dwellers. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Twenty Two Parameter Deformations of the Twelfth Peregrine Breather Solutions to the NLS Equation

Pierre Gaillard, Mickael Gastineau

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/25636

The twelfth Peregrine breather (P12 breather) solution to the focusing one dimensional nonlinear
Schr¨odinger equation (NLS) with its twenty two real parameters deformations solutions to the
NLS equation are explicitly constructed here. New families of quasi-rational solutions of the NLS
equation in terms of explicit quotients of polynomials of degree 156 in x and t by a product of an
exponential depending on t are obtained. The patterns of the modulus of these solutions in the
(x; t) plane, in function of the different parameters are studied in details.

Open Access Original Research Article

Model Based Design (MBD) Approach to Embedding Algorithm with Arduino Uno

B. K. Aliyu, Lt Cdr C. U. Nwojiji, A. O. Opasina

Advances in Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/25270

The ability for Problem Solving Environment (PSE) to model, simulate and embed algorithms unto micro-controllers without manually converting algorithms to C programming language has been subjected to a lot of scepticism. This modern method popularly referred to as Model Base Design (MBD) approach is gaining popularity amongst system engineers worldwide. Its intuitiveness combined with the learning ease and rapid prototyping appetite has lured great research agencies like NASA to use MBD in the guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) system for the Orion project. In this study, we explored the benefit of MBD, using MATLAB/Simulink as our PSE and Arduino Uno as our micro-controller. The main goal is to develop a simple traffic light and embed it in Arduino Uno from MATLAB/Simulink. The traffic light algorithm was developed using Stateflow® and the complete model built and simulated in Simulink®. Simulink Coder® was then used to automatically convert the algorithm to C code. Hence, Arduino Uno was targeted in an experiment set-up with 3 Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). The three LEDs (red, green and yellow) blinked in the designed manner depicting a typical traffic light control. In the course of this study, it was observed that the MATLAB syntax used to blink the LED varied between the R2014a and the R2015b versions of MATLAB.

Open Access Original Research Article

Temperature Trend over Nile Delta, Egypt in 20th Century

Maged M. A. Hussein, Ebtisam E. E. Mohamed

Advances in Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/25466

Air temperature time series of Nile Delta, Egypt was statistically analyzed in order to answer the question whether recent climate change can be proved for Nile delta, Egypt; the results were compared and discussed with the global trends. The observations for the Alexandria, Port Said and Cairo stations started in the 1900-2010, 1900-1947 and 1957-2010 have been used in this study. Statistical methods were applied, such as: Trend analysis (linear regression model) including the trend-to-noise-ratio as measure of significance and the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test for trends. According to the results of the analyses, climate change in Nile Delta is clearly shown for temperature during (1900–2010): Annual mean temperatures increased at all stations during 1900-1947 (from 1.23°C at Alexandria to 2.34°C at Cairo) than 1957-2010 (from 0.55°C at Port Said to 1.37°C at Cairo). The magnitude of climate change is illustrated to increase over the period 1970–2010, i.e. annual mean temperature increased from 0.98 °C at Alexandria to 1.68°C at Cairo. Seasonally, the highest warming trends were observed for summer temperatures and also increasing temperature trends detected with different magnitude in the remainder seasons. Cairo station represents the highest seasonal trend for all seasons with respect to the other two stations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Testing for Transmission Effects on Inflation from Shocks in International Food Prices: The Case of Mexico for the 2005-2015 Period

Guillermo Benavides, Alejandro García

Advances in Research, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/22449

We test for possible influences of international food prices ‘shocks’ on observed (ex post) aggregate prices in Mexico. The sample period under study is 2005-2015. As an extension to previous related works we also use another inflation measure known as Break-Even Inflation (BEIR). The latter is constructed with information from nominal and inflation indexed bond returns in order to obtain a theoretical inflation measure. This indicator is a ‘forward looking’ (ex ante) measure of inflation. To quantify the transmission degree from international prices to Mexican inflation we apply a Factor Augmented Vector Autoregression Model (FAVAR). The results show that there is statistical evidence of transmission from international food prices ‘shocks’ to Mexican inflation in both inflation measures (ex post and ex ante). These transmission effects are relatively persistent through time.

Open Access Review Article

Adolescents and Drug Abuse in Tanzania: History and Evolution

Kambuga Yusuph, Ion Negret

Advances in Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/24897

Drug abuse continues to be a major risky behaviour problem among young people all over the world. The study served as one key contribution to the knowledge of the world on the level of drug abuse in East Africa and suggested ways to curb the problem from increasing. The study findings revealed that 5-12% of young people have experienced drug use such as alcohol, cigarette, cannabis and khat at a young age and 2.1% have injected themselves with drugs such as heroin popularly known as “brown sugar”. Despite the fact that Tanzania’s existing laws provide stern punitive measures against all those involved in drug trafficking and consumption, the war against narcotic seems to be difficult as Tanzania continues to be a transit route for illicit drug.

It is very unfortunate that young people are easily pooled into drug because of persuasive deals from drug barons who commission them to sell drugs on behalf as petty dealers. The government needs to take strong action against drug dealers. This includes passing of the pending narcotics laws of 2009 by the parliament and strengthening Anti-drug Agency; establish mobile rehabilitation services in schools, introducing drug prevention programmes in schools and passing drug testing policy in school to identify drug using students.