Open Access Original Research Article

The Kannan’s Fixed Point Theorem in a Cone Hexagonal Metric Spaces

Abba Auwalu, Evren Hınc¸al

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/25272

In this paper, we prove Kannan’s fixed point theorem in a cone hexagonal metric space. Our result
extend and improve the recent result of Jleli and Samet [The Kannan’s fixed point theorem in a cone
rectangular metric space, J. Nonlinear Sci. Appl., 2 (2009), 161 - 167], and many existing results
in the literature. Example is given showing that our result are proper extensions of the existing ones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bi-ZnO Heterogeneous Catalyst for Transesterification of Crude Jatropha Oil to Fatty Acid Methyl Ester

M. A. Olutoye, B. Suleiman, A. S. Yusuff

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/20716

The transesterification of crude jatropha oil (CJO) to biodiesel using Bi-ZnO (bi-zinc oxide) as a solid catalyst was investigated. The catalyst was prepared by co-precipitation technique, calcined and characterized with XRD, TEM and the surface area, pore volume and pore size distribution of the developed catalyst were measured using BET method to give insights into its performance. It was established that sample loading of 2.0 wt.% Bi on ZnO could exhibit the highest catalytic activity when the transesterification reaction was carried out at reflux of methanol (65°C), with a 12:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil and a catalyst amount of 4 wt.%, the conversion of jatropha oil was 95%during 1 h of reaction. The utilization of the catalyst for transesterification of non-edible oil will reduce dependence on food-grade oil for industrial application. The catalyst when washed using methanol and oven dried at 80°C, can be reused for further tranesterification of the oil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Interacting Organic Co-solutes with Enzyme Substrate Complex on the Hydrolysis of Raw Soluble Starch with -amylase: Theory and Experimentation

Ikechukwu Iloh Udema, Abraham Olalere Onigbinde

Advances in Research, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/24269

Aims: The objectives of the in vitro study were to examine the applicability of thermodynamic models for the interaction of reaction mixture components to enzyme catalyzed reaction, and to determine the effect of co – solutes on the velocity of hydrolysis of a substrate with alpha amylase.

Design: Experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: Chemistry & Biochemistry Department, Research Division of Ude International Concepts limited (RC: 862217) and Department of Biochemistry, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma. This study is part of a series of research that lasted for about 4.5 years between February, 2011 and June, 2015.

Methodology: Bernfeld method of enzyme assay was used to generate data on catalytic activity of the enzymes. Reaction mixture with co – solutes was the test while the control was without any co – solute.  

Results: Human salivary alpha amylase (HSAA) had Gibbs free energy (DDG) of interaction ranging from 4.49×10+5 to 8.34×10+5J kg /mol2 while porcine alpha amylase (PAA) had values ranging from – 4.83×10+5 to – 6.73 ×10+5 J kg /mol2 due to aspirin – sucrose treatment. Treatment with a mixture of ethanol and sucrose yielded values which ranged from - 2.27×10+2 to -1.51×10+2J kg / mol2 and from -1.16×10+3 to - 0.86×10+3Jkg / mol2 for HSAA and PAA respectively. HSAA and PAA exhibited m – values (the capacity of additives to force unfolding or refolding of protein,) equal to -1.09±0.02 kJ/mol and -3.29±0.02 kJ/mol respectively in the presence of a mixture of milk and ethanol. In the absence of milk the free energy of native to destabilized (unfolded) transition (DGN®U) were - 0.29±0.08 and 14.17±0.07kJ/mol for HSAA and PAA respectively.

Conclusion: The free energy of co – solute interaction with reactants is very much applicable to the enzyme catalyzed reaction. The presence of aspirin caused higher activities of the enzymes than control. The presence of sucrose caused higher activity of HSAA than control. Unlike HSAA, the presence of milk (extra calcium salt content) enhanced the activity of PAA.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Financial Structure on Profitability with Special Reference to Oil and Gas Firms in Nigeria

Echekoba Felix Nwaolisa, Ananwude Amalachukwu Chijindu

Advances in Research, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/24568

This study is an intent to determine the influence of financial structure on profitability with special reference to oil and gas firms in Nigeria. Ten (10) out of the fourteen (14) listed oil and gas firms in Nigerian Stock Exchange were selected. The financial data from 1993 to 2013 were collected from Nigerian Stock Exchange factbook of various issues as relevant. Variation in profitability albeit return on assets, return on equity, profit before tax and earnings per share were regressed on debt-equity amalgam and tax using the pooled ordinary least square, fixed effect and random effect models. After the estimation, results revealed that financial structure has negative influence on profitability of oil and gas firms measured by return on assets, return on equity, profit before tax and earnings per share. This provides credence to the pecking order theory of financial structure which states that firms prefer internal financing before resorting to any form of external funds. In view of the negative influence financial structure has on profitability, we recommend that oil and gas firms in Nigeria should fund their operations with more of equity capital. Inevitably, oil and gas firms globally have been adversely affected by the falling oil prices with their revenues and profit on the decline and as such, borrowing from commercial banks, financial markets and other sources of external financing should be minimize due to high interest rates associated with such facilities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alternative Layout and Automation of Optimality Results for Machine Replacement Problems Based On Stationary Data and Age Transition Perspectives

Ukwu Chukwunenye

Advances in Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/25478

Aim: This investigation aimed at automating the computations of optimal replacement policies and rewards for a class of equipment replacement problems based on time perspectives and stationary pertinent data.

Methodology: The aim was achieved by the exploitation of the structure of the states given as functions of decision periods, in age-transition dynamic programming recursions.

Results: Alternative Excel solution implementation templates were designed and automated for the determination of the optimal replacement policies in machine replacement problems, with pertinent data given only as functions of machines’ ages.

Conclusion: The automation of these templates obviates the need for manual inputs of the states and stage numbering, as well as the inherent tedious and prohibitive manual computations associated with dynamic programming formulations and may be optimally exploited for sensitivity analyses on such models.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sequestration of Ni(II) and Zn(II) Ions from Electroplating Wastewater Using Biogenic Manganese Oxides

Shalu ., Anamika Verma, Narsi R. Bishnoi

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/23571

A harmonious experimental–gauge approach was used to examine the ability of biogenic manganese oxide, formed in the cultures of a Mn(II) oxidizing bacteria, Mn 21 to sequester Ni(II) and Zn(II) ions. Batch experiments were carried out in order to model and optimize the biosorption process. The influence of four parameters i.e. pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time and temperature on the uptake of Ni(II) and Zn(II) ions was determined using a response surface methodology (RSM). The Mn 21 exhibited the highest 96.8% and 92.1% Ni(II) and Zn(II) removal respectively at an initial pH of 7.0, biosorbent dosage 0.775 g/L, Contact Time 42 hrs and temperature 32°C. The biosorption mechanism was also investigated using Fourier transfer infrared (FT-IR) analysis of untreated, Ni(II) and Zn(II)  ions loaded Mn 21 biomass. The biosorbent was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). It was found that the newly formed biogenic manganese oxides (BMO) effectively sequestered Ni(II) and Zn(II) ions from electroplating wastewater.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integration of First-order Modeled Differential Equations Using a Quarter-step Method

J. Sunday, D. Yusuf, J. N. Andest

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/25688

In this paper, we present the derivation and implementation of a quarter-step method for the integration of first-order modeled differential equations. The quarter-step method was developed using Laguerre polynomial of degree six as our basis function via interpolation and collocation techniques. We went further to apply the quarter-step method developed on some modeled first order differential equations. The paper also analyzed the basic properties of the method derived. From the results obtained, it is obvious that the method is computationally reliable.