Open Access Policy Article

To be or Not to be: Social Entrepreneurship in Kashmir

Javaid Iqbal Sofi, Junaid Nabi, Fatema N. Authoy

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/23010

Lack of opportunities, and a limited availability of employment in the politically unstable valley of Jammu and Kashmir, in India, has permeated each section of the society, creating new problems for the ethnic minority of Kashmiris in all spheres of their lives from healthcare, to drug addiction. A novel approach is presented, where the control of economic destiny is shaped by promoting the entrepreneurial spirit of the people, so that their dependence on public sector jobs is decreased. Social entrepreneurship, in addition to creating economic benefits for the general populace of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), would be an ideal solution for a society which has been at constant war with itself, both metaphorically and literally. In this policy article, in addition to literature review, we discuss the potential of Social Business in J&K, and present examples of market opportunities which, if explored and invested in properly, can predict a stable and self-sufficient future for Kashmir.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mathematical Model for Machining Time of a YAG-Rod Laser Cutting Machine

S. A. Joseph, M. O. Oduola, K. J. Akinluwade, A. R. Adetunji

Advances in Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/18480

The Laser cutting machine cuts a given profile with precision and accuracy that cannot be compared with other CNC cutting machines. This is made possible because the laser cutting beam forms a thin kerf of about 0.15 mm during the cutting process. The heat affected zone (HAZ) on the material is also minimal. One of the commonly asked questions by our clients is, “how long would it take to cut this profile.” The inability of the cutting software to predict the machining or cutting time becomes a challenge for the operator. In this paper, a model was developed relating speed and profile length to machining time. The actual machining time of five different profiles were obtained from the HG LCY 300 laser cutting machine and compared with the calculated machining time obtained using the model. By comparison, the slight differences between the actual and the calculated machining time are just in milli-seconds; suggesting that the model is valid and can be employed by laser cutting machine operators to predict the machining time for job profiles ahead of the cutting operation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modern Day Gadgets, are they the New Covert Reservoirs of Pathogens in Dental Settings? An in vitro Study

N. Naveen, C. Bharath, N. Vanishree, M. Vinitha, Deepa Bullappa, P. Guru Suhas, Swati Patnaik

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/22946

Introduction: Nosocomial infections are a major concern to both clinicians and health care seekers. Investigations have suggested that laptops & mobile phones may contribute to cross-contamination and can serve as vehicles for infection transmission.

Methodology: The samples were collected from 25 laptops and 25 mobile phones from dentists working in a dental college in Bangalore city. The samples were collected aseptically using sterile cotton swabs dipped in sterile saline by rotating the swabs on the keyboard surfaces of laptops and mobile phones, inoculated into Brain Heart Infusion broth, vortexed for 1 minute in Fischer Vortex Genie 2 on highest setting & streaked immediately on 5% sheep blood agar plates and were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours aerobically. The isolates were identified based on the colony morphology, colony characteristics and biochemical reactions.

Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics and Spearman correlation were done for the colony forming units and microbial organisms present in various departments.

Results: The bacterial species isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Bacillus species, Enterococci, Micrococci, Pseudomonas etc. Predominant species isolated was Staphylococcus aureus and least was Micrococci. The microbial contamination was more for the department of Orthodontics (18.08%) followed by Oral surgery (15.96%) and least was from Endodontics (14.57%).

Conclusion: Laptops and mobile phones act as vehicles for transfer of potential pathogens associated with dental hospitals. Disinfecting the hands prior to examination of patients and disinfection of laptops and mobiles with alcohol wipes should be done to prevent nosocomial infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Intrinsic Qualities of a Naturally Attenuated Petroleum Hydrocarbon-polluted Seed Bed Exposed to Different Kinds of Mulching Materials

Chinenye C. Chijioke-Osuji, Beckley Ikhajiagbe

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/22938

As materials that help in the conservation of soil moisture, improvement of soil health and fertility, mulches also improve microbial activity, which is sin qua non to successful intrinsic bioremediation. The study investigated the effects of mulching with selected materials on the natural attenuation of waste engine oil (WEO)-polluted soil. Top soil was mixed with WEO to obtain 5% w/w oil- in-soil concentration. The soil was made into beds and covered separately with 5 different mulching materials [aluminum foil, polyethylene materials (transparent and black), granite and tarpaulin] for 3 months. Results showed that efficiency of heavy metal reductions was decreased by application of the various mulches. Percentage reduction in total heavy metal content (Cu, Mn, Ni, V, Cr and Pb) was 18.77% in the transparent polyethylene-covered bed and 62.61% in the aluminum foil-mulched soil, compared to 83.65% in the control. Total PAH content in the uncovered soil was 336.80mg/kg, indicating a 67.14% bioremediation efficiency, compared to 79.08% in the black polyethylene-covered seed bed and 74.75% in the aluminum foil-mulched bed. Total bacterial count in both treatment and control soils was highest in the tarpaulin-mulched soil (6.8 x 105 cfu/g), compared to 1.8 x 105 cfu/g in the control (uncovered). Prominent bacteria species were Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus whereas predominant fungus species were Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. Phytoassessment of the treatment and control soils using transplants of Amaranthus hybridus showed highest yield and biomass accumulation in the tarpaulin-mulched soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Quality of Weaning Foods Formulated from Maize Gruel 'Ogi' and Crayfish Using Combined Traditional Processing Technology

Comfort Funmilayo Ajibola, Tayo Nathaniel Fagbemi, Oluwatooyin Faramade Osundahunsi

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/21981

Aims: To investigate the nutritional quality of weaning foods produced from maize gruel 'ogi’ and crayfish using combined traditional processing techniques (germination, fermentation and toasting).  

Study Design: Randomized block design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between January 2013 and November 2014.

Methodology: Maize grains were germinated at room temperature for three days after which they were fermented for 24 h. The maize grains were milled into slurry and divided into two portions. The first portion was oven-dried at 50°C and milled into flour while the second portion was toasted at 80°C and milled into flour. The two flours were separately mixed with crayfish powder to obtain oven-dried crayfish-ogi blend and toasted crayfish-ogi blend. The microbiological quality of the blends was determined. The nutritional qualities of the crayfish enriched ogi blends were assessed biologically using animal feeding experiment to determine the growth rate, feed intake, protein quality parameters and haematological properties. A commercial weaning food (cerelac) and traditional weaning food, ordinary ogi (maize gruel), were used as control diets.

Results: The total mesophilic bacteria count of the ogi blends ranged from 1.2 to 2.5x 103 cfu/g. Mold (1.0 x 103 cfu/g) were found in both oven-dried and toasted crayfish enriched ogi blends.  Yeasts were found only in oven-dried enriched ogi blend (1.0 x 103cfu/g). Coliform, Staphylococcus and Salmonella were not detected in all the formulated diets. The growth rate of animals fed with crayfish enriched-ogi blends were lower than those fed with the cerelac, but higher than those fed with ordinary ogi. The protein efficiency ratio of animals fed with crayfish enriched ogi blends was similar (p= 0.05) to those fed with cerelac diet. The net protein ratio, true digestibility, biological value and net protein utilization of animals fed with crayfish enriched ogi diets were significantly lower (p˂0.05) than those fed with cerelac diet. The weight of the heart, liver, spleen and kidney of animals fed with crayfish-enriched ogi blends were significantly higher (p=0.05) than those fed with ordinary ogi but similar to the rats fed with casein and cerelac diets. The haematological variables of animals fed with crayfish enriched ogi diets, commercial weaning food (cerelac) and casein diet were not significantly (p>0.05) influenced by the dietary treatment.

Conclusion: Crayfish enriched ogi has potential as a functional weaning food with adaptable production technology (toasting) especially among rural dwellers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Equilibrium Isotherm Study for Removal of Mn (II) from Aqueous Solutions by Using Novel Bioadsorbent Tinospora cordifolia

Kajal Sao, Fahmida Khan, Piyush Kant Pandey, Madhurima Pandey

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/23224


The removal efficiency of Tinospora cordifolia from manganese containing aqueous solutions was investigated. The effect of adsorbent dosages, pH of solution, initial Mn (II) concentration and contact time was investigated using a batch adsorption technique. The optimum pH for Mn (II) adsorption was found as 4.0 for T. cordifolia. Results were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models using linearized correlation coefficient. The characteristic parameters for each isotherm have been determined. The Langmuir model agrees very well with experimental data than the Freundlich isotherm model. According to Langmuir isotherm, the monolayer saturation capacity (Qmax) was 24.69 mg/g at temperature (25±2°C). The FT-IR analysis indicated the involvement of hydroxyl (-OH), aliphatic (-C-H), and carbonyl group (C=O) chelates in metal binding. The biomass was then used for the removal of Mn (II) in synthetic and real wastewater samples from a coal-mine acid industrial wastewater. This study indicated that the biomass of                  T. cordifolia can be used as an effective and environmental friendly adsorbent for the treatment of Mn (II) containing aqueous solutions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of a Diesel Engine Run on Biodiesel Produced from Coconut Oil and Its Blends

Nicholas A. Musa, Georgina M. Teran, Saraki A. Yaman

Advances in Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/23418

This paper presents the evaluation of performance parameters viz a viz Brake Specific Fuel Consumptions (BSFC), brake powers and mechanical efficiencies of a diesel engine run on biodiesel, its blends and diesel. The results of the evaluation showed that all the parameters exhibit similar variations. Mechanical efficiencies of the diesel engine run on the blends of biodiesel with diesel containing 30%, 40% and 50% biodiesel denoted by B30, B40 and B50 respectively were found to be higher than when it was run on diesel and a blend of biodiesel with diesel containing 20% biodiesel denoted by B20. Mechanical efficiencies of the diesel engine run on the blend of biodiesel with diesel containing 10% biodiesel and solely biodiesel denoted by B10 and B100 respectively were found to be lesser than when it was run on diesel denoted by B0, with increase in brake powers. The mechanical efficiencies of the diesel engine run on B10, B30, B40, B50 and B100 were found to be lesser with increase in engine loads in comparison to when it was run on diesel. BSFC of the diesel engine that was run on biodiesel and its blend were found to be higher than when it was run on diesel only. They increased with increase in percentage of biodiesel added to diesel as the engine load increased. However they were found to increase with increase in brake power in the order of B10, B20, B30, B40, B50 and B100.