Open Access Opinion Article

Advances in Modern Physics: Transition from Positivism to Post-positivism in Education and Research

Sebahattin Tüzemen

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/19816

Advances in quantum physics in the first quarter of the twentieth century dramatically influenced perspectives in science and philosophy. This paper discusses why a shift towards post-positivism in the philosophy of science is necessary, taking a novel perspective using the basic principles of quantum physics and its implications. Given the fundamental limitations of observation and evaluation in science as elucidated by quantum mechanics, we need to question the meanings of objectivity and truth, and therefore our entire present knowledge base. This results in a re-alignment of ontology, epistemology and methodology in the philosophy of research. The comparison of quantum mechanics and post-positivism leads us to relativism and critical realism. It is proposed that the right way to approach the acquisition of knowledge is to have an overall perspective of post-positivism that parallels the basic principles of modern physics. It is suggested that this new approach would be an appropriate framework also for higher education, leading to interdisciplinary, constructive and active learning instead of the traditional prescriptive approach.

Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetics of Powder-Free Laboratory Examination Gloves at 345°C and 405°C by Thermogravimetric Analysis

Nasrollah Hamidi

Advances in Research, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/20095

At two consecutive temperatures, 345°C and 405°C as well the two thermal scans in between these two temperatures the kinetics of thermolysis of powder-free laboratory safety gloves (LG) was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Three methods were used to evaluate the kinetics parameters related to the decomposition of LG at 345°C and 405°C isotherms. The results of the study indicated that the kinetics parmeters depends on the model to choose. The reaction at 354°C based on the models could be second order, fractional or many zeroth order concurrent reactions. The activation energy of thermalizes (Ea) was estimated by thermal scans, and isotherms at 308, 313, 333, 336, and 345°C. The value of Ea for the process at lower temperature was near to Ea corresponding to evaporation of volatiles, and at higher temperatures Ea was below constituent chemical bond energies as well below of Ea for decomposition of rubber in tires.

Open Access Original Research Article

Management of Insect Pests of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) Using Oxymatrine-based Insecticide

John Peter Nyaaba Aetiba, Enoch Adjei Osekre

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/19188

A field trial was undertaken to evaluate the insecticidal potency of Levo (a. i. Oxymatrine) botanical insecticide for the management of insect pests of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L Moench). Podagrica uniformis Jacoby, P. sjostedti Jacoby, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and Aphis gossypii (Glover) were identified as insect pests that attack okra in the study area. There were significant differences in Podagrica spp., B. tabaci and A. gosspyii densities between insecticide-treated and the control plots. No significant differences were obtained between insecticide-treated and the control in terms of fruit yield. Defoliation by Podagrica spp. was significantly different among treatment plots. The study showed that Levo was as effective as Lambda super (a. i. lambda cyhalothrin) and can be recommended as a substitute for the management of insect pests of okra. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Arabic News Classification Using Field Association Words

O. G. El-Barbary

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/18789

Text classification is a popular problem that has been studied extensively in the last four decades. Since many classification schemes can be used, the question of how to choose the best one among many for a designated task remains. In this work, we design a method for classification the Arabic news, the classification system that best fits data given a certain representation. We present a new method for Arabic news classification using field association words (FA words). The document preprocessing system will generate the meaningful terms based on Arabic corpus and Arabic language dictionary. Then, the field association terms will be classified according to FA word classification algorithm. 

Open Access Original Research Article

An Appraisal of the Upholding of Moral Good Actions by the Censor (44 BCE) in the Roman Empire and its Culmination in the Public Protector of South Africa

Nico P. Swartz, Eric Ozoo

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/19511

Centuries ago in the Roman Empire the satirist, Juvenal raised the question: Quis custodiet ipsos custodies? This means literally: “Who watches the watchmen?” or “Who guards the guards?” In addition, it points to promoting the upholding of moral good acts among both the citizens and those who must defend the rights and interests of the individual against the abuse of power by those who possess public authority. In this article it has been postulated that the duties of the then Censor (44 BCE) showed similarities to those of the present-day Public Protector. This phenomenon will be investigated by examining whether or not the Public Protector still fulfils the duties and powers of the Censor. From the conclusion, it is clear that the Censor was indeed the predecessor of the Public Protector. But such conclusion hinged upon the necessary phases the Censor underwent to ultimately culminate in the Public Protector. It is also explicated in this study that at times the duties and powers of the Censor developed or changed in order to conform to the changing circumstances of the time. Notwithstanding such developments or changes, upholding moral good acts remained the same for both offices and this is particularly the purview of this article.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fertility Views and Female Hair Color Preference in College Men

Sarah R. Hart, Terry F. Pettijohn II

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/21683

Fertility views and hair color preferences of women in college men (n=69) were investigated in the current study. Two articles were used to prime participants to think about fertility levels as low and getting pregnant as challenging, or fertility levels as high and getting pregnant as easy. It was hypothesized that the blonde female model would be preferred more than the brunette female model in the high fertility prime condition, and male participants in the low fertility prime condition would have no hair color preference. The hypothesis was supported. The blonde model was preferred more than the brunette model in the high fertility condition and the brunette model was preferred slightly more than the blonde model in the low fertility condition. This study provides support for evolutionary psychology mate preference predictions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetics of Powder-Free Laboratory Examination Gloves at 323°C and 408°C by Thermogravimetric Analysis

Nasrollah Hamidi

Advances in Research, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/20740

At two isotherm temperatures, 323°C and 408°C, and two thermal scans the kinetics of thermolysis of powder-free laboratory safety gloves (LG) was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Three methods was used to determine the fraction of reactants and hence the related kinetics parameters. The results of the study indicated that the kinetics parmeters depended on the method of calculation the fraction of reactants. The experimental data at the isothermal temperature 323°C fitted in zeroth, first and second order reaction, and the kinetics of pyrolysis at the isotherm temperature 408°C fitted into first order and second order, depending on the definition of the fraction of reactants. Moreover, the reiteration method was used to find the best value of n and k for thermolysis at both temperatures; the best order for the thermolysis found to be 1.78, and 1.93 at 323 and 408°C, respectively. The activation energy of thermalizes was estimated by two methods: thermal scans, and the plot of k values obtained from five isotherms versus the invers of corresponding temperatures. The value of activation energy for the process at lower temperatures was near to activation energy corresponds to evaporation of volatiles, and at higher temperatures the activation energy was below constituents’ chemical bond energies but it was higher than the reported activation energy for decomposition of polymethyl methacrylate and it was lower than activation energy for decomposition of rubber in tires.