Open Access Original Research Article

Sleeping Patterns among Medical Students in the Middle East: Identifying Areas for Intervention

Salman Alzayani, Randah R. Hamadeh

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/17208

Aims: The objective of the study was to describe the Arabian Gulf University medical students’ sleeping patterns and to provide recommendations for promoting healthy and better sleeping patterns among the students.

Study Design and Place of Study: A cross sectional study was conducted on medical students enrolled at the Arabian Gulf University in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Methodology: A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was used, which included questions on demography and sleeping patterns.

Results: Of the 535 medical students who were enrolled in years 1-4, 443 responded to the questionnaire thus resulting in a 82.8% response rate. The study showed that 40.2% of the medical students were attending the College without sleep at all for at least one day during the week. There were significant differences by gender, nationality, and accommodation status.

Conclusion: Sleeping patterns cluster among students according to gender, nationality and accommodation status. Urgent interventions are needed to promote healthy sleeping patterns among medical students.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Testing Procedure to Analyse the Effect of Window Coverings

Dariusz Alterman, Stephen O'Keeffe

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/20496

The paper presents the procedure and facilities used to empirically assess the thermal performance of the window coverings subjected to the radiation from the light source. The ability of the window coverings to minimize the heat gain on the internal environment of the testing chambers is also discussed. Two identical chambers have been built whilst maintaining a recommended window to floor space ratio, one chamber has a glass pane and its replica has similar glass and a system to fit various window coverings. 

It was found that the thermal conductivity of window covering materials (and R-value indirectly) seemed to be less significant because the heat was reflected back to the external environment and the radiation was a major driver of the thermal performance. The entire heat transfer process is then much more influenced by the color of the window coverings, as the darker colors absorb more heat from the radiation. The lighter counterparts reflect more heat from the radiation and the conduction and convection play a less significant role.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Significance of Time Step Size in Simulating the Thermal Performance of Buildings

Aiman Albatayneh, Dariusz Alterman, Adrian Page, Behdad Moghtaderi

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/20223

The determination of the internal air temperature of a building is pivotal to its design in the determination of heating and cooling loads and the assessment of the thermal comfort for the occupants. Autodesk CFD analysis is one of many application programs which can assist in calculating building internal air temperatures and it is expected that using a smaller time step size can provide more accurate results but long term simulations for complex building analysis is significantly lengthening computing time.

To solve these issues a larger time step can be used. This speeds up the computing time and also results in a higher predicted (and more realistic) internal temperature fluctuation range. This is reported in this paper, where the larger time scale technique is used with an average capacity personal computer (PC) machines to perform the simulations. This fast Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation method is used to simulate the thermal performance of a series of existing housing test modules constructed using a range of walling systems. The performance of the proposed computing technique is assessed by comparing the internal air temperature of each building at the floor level.

To find the time step which gives the most accurate simulation of the measured internal air temperature, CFD simulations were carried out for various time steps (15, 30, 60, 80, 100, 120, 150, 180 minutes); it was found that 80 and 100 minute time steps gave the most accurate representation of the real fluctuation. The fastest simulation with the most accurate results was for a 80/100 time step where more than 87% of the results fell within a 3°C range compared to the real data. This also required only 1% of the computing time compared to a 1 minute time step.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Overview of Drought Hazards and Prospective Mitigation Approach in Bangladesh

M. A. Rakib, M. S. Akter, Mehjabin Elahi, M. Ali, Md. Babul Hossain

Advances in Research, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/19233

Drought is the most formidable disaster frequently reoccurring in most regions of Bangladesh. It is a natural slow onset hazard which evolves unnoticed and enhancing due to the onslaught of global climate change. It is characterized with the long periods of dryness and shortage of water supply cumulatively impacting adversely on the socioeconomic development of the people and their properties. It is also defined as atmospheric / meteorological, hydrological and agricultural conditions which are closely related, in which meteorological is the source of the rest. Long term instability of temperature and rainfall pattern leads to local and regional drought hazards which impact productive sector failure and worsen socio-economic status. Agricultural activities which are the foundations of the socioeconomic aspect of Bangladesh suffer the impacts of drought most. It is due to the absence of solid understanding of the causes of drought in Bangladesh, the impacts of drought on the agriculture and socioeconomic life of Bangladesh, and the available of opportunities which could have been exploited to obtain mitigation of the adverse impacts of drought in Bangladesh and in similar conditions elsewhere. This study dwelt on the causes and impacts of drought on the agriculture and socioeconomic life of Bangladesh, and the opportunities which could be exploited to obtain their most effective mitigation and adaptation to. Aim is to minimize the impact of drought for enhanced sustainability of growth in the agricultural sector and socioeconomic life of Bangladesh and other countries in similar conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

EFL Teacher Verbal Aggressiveness and Student Intrinsic Motivation and Social-Affective Strategy Use: Investigating Possible Relations

Polyxeni Manoli, Alexandra Bekiari

Advances in Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/19692

The study examined the relations among perceived English as Foreign Language (EFL) teachers’ verbal aggressiveness and students’ intrinsic motivation and social-affective strategy use. The sample consisted of 148 Greek-speaking undergraduate students (aged 18-23 years old) attending EFL courses. Three types of questionnaires, an adapted version of the Verbal Aggressiveness Questionnaire, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, and the Strategy Inventory Language Learning were used to collect data. The results supported the internal consistency of the instruments. Correlational analysis indicated that perceived EFL teachers’ verbal aggressiveness was positively correlated with students’ pressure/tension (r=.78) and negatively related to enjoyment/interest             (r=-.93), competence (r=-.88), effort/importance (r=-.64), affective (r=-.92) and social strategy use (r=-.94). Based on the results of the present study, it can be alleged that the teacher behavior can exert great influence on student feelings, attitude to the lesson, strategy use and, consequently, the language learning process. The findings and implications of the contribution of teacher behaviour to the EFL student language learning as well as future research suggestions are further discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Faroe, Orkney and Sardinia Islands are Pointing the Dielectrophoretic Force in the Etiology of Multiple Sclerosis

Cahit Canbay

Advances in Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/19602

This study aims to explain the cause of prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease in the Faroe, Orkney and Sardinia Islands, by pointing the dielectrophoretic force in the etiology of MS. Initially, the geographical and geophysical specifications of these places have been investigated and then, the results were interpreted by considering the effects of the dielectrophoretic force, which is the essential cause of MS disease in the human body. These islands have very suitable conditions in terms of the geographic environment and the constitutive relations to transmit the electromagnetic field lines, compared to the other places. As a result of this study, it has been found out that direct correlation between the electromagnetic fields on the islands and the prevalence of MS disease. In order to support these claims, several geographical/geophysical data, calculated results and reviews by the author in his previous articles have been used.

Open Access Original Research Article

Short Term Sorption Effect on three Esthetic Dental Filling Materials in Various Media

C. T. Bamise, M. O. Mejabi, T. A. Esan

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/20183

Aim: This study measures the weight gain of three esthetic restorative materials after immersion in water, Coke and Fanta for 120 hours.

Materials and Methods: Three restorative materials (Visible Light Cure Composite; Prime Dental INC USA, GC Fuji IXGP; GC Corporation Japan, AmalgomerTM CR; Advanced HealthCare LTD, UK) and three immersion media (Distilled water, Cocacola; Nigeria Bottling Company LTD, Fanta; Nigeria Bottling company LTD) were used. A mold of 10 mm in diameter and 4 mm depth was constructed to form blocks. At different times, the materials were manipulated and placed into the mold using a plastic instrument. Fuji IX and Amalgomer CR were chemical cure materials, therefore they were left to polymerize in the mold. Composite was photopolymerized for 1 minute, and the specimens were removed after 24 hours. Three blocks of each test material were weighed thrice using calibrated electronic microbalance. The materials were immersed in either of the three solutions for 120 hrs; retrieved, dried and weighed thrice using the same digital weighing balance. Data was recorded in study-specific charts.

Results: All the materials gained weight after immersion for 120 hours in the three media. In water and Coke, Fuji IX gained the least weight of 24.7% and 19.5% respectively. Composite gained the least weight of 20.7% in Fanta. Amalgomer gained the largest weight of 27.2%, 26.2% and 29.2% in water, Coke and Fanta respectively. Cumulatively, Amalgomer gained the most weight (34.2%) in the three media and Fuji IX the least (32.5%). Water caused the greatest weight gain of 33.9% in the three materials while Fanta caused the least increase of 33%. 

Conclusion: All the materials gained weight after 120 hours. This revealed a tendency for all of them to absorb fluid from their environment. There is need for caution in their application in less than optimum conditions. Continuous improvement in the properties of these materials is warranted.