Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of NaCl Induced Stress on Germination and Seedling Growth of Various Oryza sativa L. Genotypes

Adel M. Ghoneim, Awais Ahmad, Muhammad Afzal, Azza Ebid

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/16740

An experimental study aimed to investigate the effect of saline stress on rice (Oryza saliva L.) germination and early seedling characteristics, and genotypic differences in response to saline stress was conducted under lab conditions at College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Germination percentage (%), germination rate, emergence energy (%), germination speed, seedling height (cm), vigour index, seedling fresh and dry weights (mg) were recorded. Treatments consist of three different saline stress levels: 0 mM (Control), 100 mM and 200 mM, and eight rice genotypes; Basmati 385 and Super Basmati (Pakistani), Sakha 101, Sakha 102, Sakha 103, Sakha 104, Sakha 105 and Sakha 106 (Egyptian). It was conceived from results that saline stress significantly affected all the germination parameters in reverse order.         (0 mM < 100 mM < 200 mM). Genotypic differences among rice cultivars germinating under saline stress were also recorded significant. Most valuable outcome of the study: interaction between various levels of saline stress and rice genotypes were highly significant. Sakha 101, Sakha 103, Sakha 106 and Basmati 385 have performed better even under 200 mM NaCl; they have higher level of saline stress tolerance potential and could be used in future breeding programs.


Open Access Original Research Article

Fertility Status and Suitabilty Assessment of Soils for the Production of Maize at Solomon Mahlangu Campus Farm, Morogoro, Tanzania

U. K. Adamu, Jerome P. Mrema, J. J. Msaky

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/17979

The low soil fertility status of many soils in Morogoro area and non-use of fertilizers by small scale farmers contributes to the low yields of most annual crops, including maize. This study was carried out in 2014/2015 cropping season at the Mazimbu, part of SUA farm Morogoro, Tanzania, to evaluate the current fertility status and suitability of these soils for maize cropping on the farm. Four soil profiles designated as I, II, III and IV were dug to represent each of the soil units. Soils samples were collected from delineated horizons and analyzed for physical and chemical properties. Composite soil samples were also collected from each block (mapping unit) at the depth of 0 - 30cm and analyzed for different physico-chemical properties using standard laboratory procedures of soil, plant and water analysis advocated by [1]. Results obtained indicated that, the soils were loamy sand to silt loam in texture with a slightly acidic to mildly alkaline in reaction (pHwater = 5.96 - 7.27). As per the critical nutrients limit for maize production the mean values for organic carbon (0.29 %), total nitrogen (0.04%), available phosphorus (9.0 mg kg-1), cation exchange capacity (9.84, base saturation (21.2%) and exchangeable bases (Ca=0.7, Mg=0.85, K=0.31 and Na=0.21 were low in all four blocks of the study area. The mean EC value (0.03 ds/m) was below the critical limit indicating that the soils were naturally non-saline. The suitability of the soils to maize plant was assessed following conventional approach (FAO) and parametric method. The evaluation of the soils revealed that, all the soils of the four mapping units are moderately suitable (S2) for maize production. For increased and optimal maize production on the farm, it is recommended that, the best soils management practices such as planting cover crops, reducing overgrazing, burning and complementary use of organic and inorganic manure should be established.


Open Access Original Research Article

Scour Evaluation for the Nile River Bends on Rosetta Branch

Gamal Elsaeed, Hossam Elsersawy, Mohammad Ibrahim

Advances in Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/17380

The objectives of this research were to analyze and evaluate the effect of releasing flow discharges on river meandering in addition to estimating the local scour at 13 bridge piers distributed on 3 bridges located on Rosetta branch. The meandering length was 3.5 Km (from km 145.00 to km 148.50) D.S of El-Roda Gauge at Kafr El-Zayat City. Several sorts of data were collected including site maps, velocity measurements, bed samples, hydrographic survey data, water levels and discharges at several years and seasons, as well as visual inspection photos to be used in the current study. The configurations in bed level, the thalwege line, and the scour holes were determined by comparing the surveyed entire reach at years 1982, 1998, 2003 and 2006.

Study area was simulated four times by 2-D mathematical model “SMS” using a survey reach at years 1982, 1998, 2003 and 2006. This was done to estimate the velocities and the water levels for different discharges at the entire reach. The flow was used as upstream boundary condition and the water level was used as downstream boundary condition. The model was calibrated and verified using the field measured velocities.

Two proposed alternatives were suggested and numerically simulated separately. The first alternative, the outer bends were filled with layers of filter and riprap to level -5.00 m MSL. The second alternative included filling the scour regions to level -5.0 m MSL in additional to dredging the inner sides of the bends where sedimentation regions were located to level -3.00 m MSL. The two alternatives were numerically tested under maximum and emergence flows. The results analysis proved that flow conditions were enhanced and improved under the second alternative when compared to the first one. Based on the results, layers of filter and riprap were designed to fill the scour holes.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Households’ Participation in Community and Social Development Projects (CSDP): A Case Study of Imo State, Nigeria

E. N. Okereke-Ejiogu, C. C. Asiabaka, A. O. Ani, P. C. Umunakwe

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/16866

This study assessed households’ participation in Community and Social Development Project in Imo State, Nigeria. Specifically, it described the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents, determined the participation of the respondents in the project and ascertained the perceived effectiveness of the project. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 216 respondents, while structured questionnaire was used to elicit data from them. Data were analyzed using percentages, bar charts and mean statistics. Hypothesis was tested using analysis of variance at 5% significance level. Results showed that majority (68.1%) of the respondents were male while 79.2% and 97.2% were married and educated respectively. It also revealed that the respondents participated more in drainage system project (48.4%), modern oil mill (39.6%) and market structures (35.3%). Furthermore, the result showed that oil mill (88.4%), water boreholes (88.4%), erosion control (86.6%), drainage systems (86.6%), construction of school blocks (83.3%) and health centres (81.5%) were perceived as effective projects in the area. The result of the hypothesis tested revealed that there were no significant differences in the levels of participation of community members in CSDP in the three agricultural zones of the state. It was recommended that the project should be replicated in other parts of the country since it had bearing on the welfare of the people. Women, youth and the vulnerable should be given an opportunity to participate in similar project in the future.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Resilience, Compassion Fatigue, Stress and Empathy in Professional Nurses

Marietta P. Stanton, Rick A. Houser, Morgan E. Kiper Riechel, Joy J. Burnham, Graham McDougall

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/16842

The purpose of the study is to determine the effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on measured levels of resilience and empathy in professional nurses with evidence of compassion fatigue and other stress related problems.

Lowered levels of resilience, compassion fatigue and decreased empathy are significant predictors of burnout in nurses. Enhanced levels of resilience are associated with improved empathic responses and overall emotional well-being. Nurses who work in high stress environments often exhibit compassion fatigue and post-traumatic stress disorders that may reduce their ability to function effectively. Because tDCS has been used successfully in a number of chronic disease conditions, it would seem that there is potential for it to be useful in a broader context. The treatment with tDCS may be a potential strategy for improving resilience and eliminating chronic stress responses.

A timed series counterbalanced research design was used for the study. Participants completed 18 sessions of tDCS over a six week period. They also completed a resilience, compassion fatigue, stress and empathy scale before and after each tDCS administration.

A repeated measure analysis was used to determine if tDCS had an impact on scale scores. The analysis showed that tDCS amperage had significant positive effects on empathy. On the outcomes of resilience, compassion fatigue and stress, tDCS did not produce any significant changes. This research provides a new approach to compassion fatigue, an old problem with caregivers. Notably, when implemented with individuals experiencing problems that involve apathy or indifference, tDCS is a non-effortful intervention that offers a pathway that may improve symptoms and does not require extensive outlays of physical or mental energy.


Open Access Original Research Article

Community Vulnerability and Adaptation to the Impact of Climate Change in the Coastal Areas of Bangladesh

D. M. Nazmul Alam, Khandkar- Siddikur Rahman, Sourav Bagchi Ratul, Palash Kanti Haldar, Md. Nazrul Islam

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/16695

Aims: Inhabitants of the Sundarbans impact zone are frequently affected by natural hazards such as salinity, cyclones, tidal surge, water logging, etc. In addition, limited asset, livelihood options, low agricultural production and inadequate access to productive resources and services are increasing the vulnerability of communities in the coastal region. This paper presents the climate change trends and possible impact of climate change and climatic vulnerabilities. It also presents the adaptive capacity of the climate change affected communities of the south-western part of Bangladesh.

Study Design: It is a qualitative and quantitative research based on primary and secondary data.

Place and Duration of Study: Sutarkhali union, Dacope, Khulna, Bangladesh, between January to August 2014.

Methodology: Participatory and qualitative research methods, including focus group discussion (FGD) for climate vulnerability and capacity analysis (CVCA) and the individual household survey were applied among different vulnerable livelihood groups of the study area.

Results: The result of the study shows that the changing pattern of climate drastically influenced the livelihood of community, natural resource degradation and increasing social inequalities. In this study, the positive role of government programs such as cash for work, test relief, vulnerable group feeding, vulnerable group development and the active role of NGOs through training on different income generating activities, cash support, commodity support, disaster related training for reducing effect of past disaster and the vulnerability of the existing climate change effect were found.

Conclusion: Climate change has become a supplementary burden to the community who are already vulnerable and struggling with poverty.


Open Access Review Article

The Judicial Implications of Necrophilia

Nico P. Swartz

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/14731

In many countries there are no laws that address the necessary legalities about necrophilia. This legal incapacity hinders states to prosecute individuals who are caught having sex with dead bodies. As a result necrophilic sex acts are not illegal. The lethargy of the law in regard to some states or countries to protect the dead is deplored in this study. A mind-shift is eventually contrived in State v Ryan. It is only in response to this case that some states start to promulgate legislation in re the criminalization of necrophilic acts. People who perform necrophilia, not only adds to the sorrow of grieving family members, but also infringes other cultural norms. The research emphasizes therefore that it is long overdue that action be taken to criminalize necrophilia in general.