Open Access Original Research Article

Bacterial Profile Associated with Dental Caries in Jos, Nigeria

J. A. Anejo-Okopi, A. E. J. Okwori, G. Michael, O. J. Okojokwu, O. Audu

Advances in Research, Page 371-377
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/15234

Aims: The study was aimed at determining bacterial prevalence and their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics.

Study Design: The research was a cross sectional study which cuts across all age group and gender.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Bacteriology Laboratory of Department of Medical Microbiology, Federal College of Veterinary and Medical Laboratory Technology, Vom, Jos, Nigeria, between July and September 2014.

Methodology: We included 150 patients (30 men, 120 women; age range 11-70 years) who gave consent to be included in the study. Swabs were taken from dental plaque and inoculated on basal salt medium containing yeast and bacterial colonies obtained were identified biochemically according Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Antibiotic susceptibility test was then conducted on the isolates identified.

Results: Ninety-five (63.3%) patients had cavities located at the molars, forty-five (30%) between molar and premolar and ten (6.7%) located at the gingival margin. One hundred and twenty (80%) samples were obtained from female patients and thirty (20%) from male patients. Lactobacillus species had the highest occurrence (28.8%). The least was Fusobacterium species (0.7%). The antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that Enterobacter species was resistant to all the three antibiotics used in this study. Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus were resistant to erythromycin and vancomycin but sensitive to all the three antibiotics.

Conclusion: A few common acidogenic bacteria known to colonize dental plaque were identified. Susceptibility of the various bacterial isolates to the selected antibiotics varied. Further studies on susceptibility of these bacteria to commonly used antibiotics, antibacterial mouth washes and toothpastes are necessary in order to understand their epidemiology, to limit the spread of resistant bacteria. Larger sample size studies with better isolation, identification and characterization methods are needed. These studies could lead to the identification of strategies for effective biological interventions in the caries process and thereby contribute to improved prevention and treatment.


Open Access Original Research Article

Geomorphological and Land Use Mapping: A Case Study of Ishwardi Under Pabna District, Bangladesh

A. R. M. Towfiqul Islam, Z. M. M. Sein, Victor Ongoma, M. Saidul Islam, M. Foysal Alam, Farid Ahmed

Advances in Research, Page 378-387
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/14149

The study presents geomorphological and land use mapping of the north western part of Ishwardi Upazila under Pabna district, Bangladesh. The objective of the research was to identify geomorphologicalunits and to prepare geomorphological and land use mapping based on remote sensing data and extensive field work. The satellite images of SPOT (Band 4) and Landsat TM-2012 were used for interpretation of geomorphological units. Land use elements are mapped using SPOT satellite images (Band 4) incorporated with field observation data.The study area consists of active channels, abandon channels, natural levees, flood plains, flood basins and lateral channel bars. The results revealed the need for regional and local land use policy revision employing a multi-disciplinary approach for sustainable development. The study advocates for the integration of geological factor in initial for land use planning in order to avoid damage of property and loss of lives. However, the study calls for further research work using different and longer data sets.


Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Base Oil Regeneration from Spent Engine Oil via Solvent Extraction

I. J. Ani, J. O. Okafor, M. A. Olutoye, U. G. Akpan

Advances in Research, Page 403-411
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/16795

Regeneration of base oil from spent engine oil (SEO) has been studied and the parameters involved were optimized using Response Surface Methodology. A mathematical model was obtained for the dependent variables, base oil yield (Y1) and ash content (Y2) while effects of solvent to oil ratio and time were determined. From the analysis of variance, the quadratic model generated for the dependent variables, Y1 and Y2 are significant with f-values of 3764.26 and 161.84, respectively. This simply implies that the predicted values generated by the model equations are in good correlation with the experimental values for both responses, the adequacy of the model was further depicted by the ‘lack of fit’ which are not significant. Also, the coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.9996 and 0.9914 for Y1 and Y2 which are very close to unity show that the regression model explains the experimental data by 99.96% and 99.14%, respectively. Increase in solvent to oil ratio gave an increment in the base oil yield and reduced the ash content, but increase in reaction time had little or no effect on the yield and increased the ash content which is not desirable. The optimum conditions obtained are; solvent to oil ratio of 5:1 and 30 min reaction time at ambient temperature. The level of contaminants in the SEO was determined by its kinematic viscosity, viscosity index, ash content, heavy metal content, pour point and specific gravity. The method revealed an environmentally friendly way of managing engine spent oil.


Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of the Nutritive and Anti-Nutritive Values of Pelophylax esculentus (Edible Frog) Found in Hanyan Gwari, Minna Niger State, Nigeria

J. T. Mathew, M. M. Ndamito, E. Y. Shaba, S. S. Mohammed, A. B. Salihu, Y. Abu

Advances in Research, Page 412-420
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/12059

The proximate, selected minerals, amino acid profile, functional properties and anti-nutrient composition of edible frog (Pelophylax esculentus) were determined using standard analytical methods. The crude protein was 31.17±1.36%, carbohydrate was found to be 29.02±1.16% while the crude fibre was 11.71±0.22%. The crude fat was 16.22±0.16%, ash content was 8.93±1.33% and moisture was 3.49±0.56%. The abundance of mineral elements found in the meat of P. esculentus was found to be in the order: sodium > phosphorus > potassium > calcium > zinc > magnesium > copper > iron > manganese. The calorific value was 506.17 kcal/100 g while the animal was also found to have reasonable amounts of essential amino acids: tryptophan (0.39), lysine (7.62), arginine (6.13), histidine (2.13), threonine (3.94), valine (4.82), methionine (2.89), leucine (7.22), isoleucine (3.83) and phenylalanine (4.14) all expressed as percentage of protein. Based on its anti-nutritional contents, P. esculentus meat could be considered as a good, low cost source of animal protein for man and his animals. It could also be a good source of calcium, potassium and sodium.


Open Access Original Research Article

An Intelligent Tuned Harmony Search Algorithm for Optimum Design of Steel Framed Structures to AISC-LRFD

Mamoun Alqedra, Ashraf Khalifa, Mohammed Arafa

Advances in Research, Page 421-440
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/16831

Abstract: An optimum design of non-linear steel frames using an effective artificial intelligence algorithm is presented. To consider the actual behavior of steel connections, the studied steel frames were designed as semi rigid connections. The Frye and Morris polynomial model is used for modeling the non-linear behavior of the semi-rigid connections. In this work, the Intelligent Tuned Harmony Search (ITHS) optimization algorithm was implemented due to its efficiency in parameter initializing through maintaining a proper balance between diversification and intensification throughout the search process. The design algorithm obtains the minimum weight of steel frames by choosing from a standard set of the AISC steel sections. Strength constraints of American Institute of Steel Construction - Load and Resistance Factor Design (AISC-LRFD) specification, deflection, displacement, size constraint and lateral torsional buckling are imposed on frames. To demonstrate the application and validity of the algorithm, this paper presents two steel frames with extended end plate without column stiffeners. The results reflect the superiority of the ITHS algorithm in terms of accuracy, convergence speed, and robustness when comparing with the state-of-the-art harmony search algorithm (HS) and Genetic algorithm (GA).


Open Access Review Article

Natural Skin-care Products: The Case of Soap Made from Cocoa Pod Husk Potash

Esther Gyedu-Akoto, Daniel Yabani, John Sefa, Dominic Owusu

Advances in Research, Page 365-370
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/17029

Consumer demand for natural and organic personal care products has increased steadily due to the fact that some synthetic chemicals have been proven to be harmful to human health. Soaps are general personal hygiene and general cleaning products and they can either be natural or synthetic. A popular local soap produced in Ghana is considered to be a natural soap because it is made from natural ingredients such as potash obtained from cocoa pod husk (CPH) and unrefined vegetable oils such as palm kernel oil. At the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG), the soap has been re-formulated by adding cocoa butter or shea butter to improve on its nourishing effect. Soap made with CPH potash is found to be soft on the skin and has the properties of the ingredients used in its preparation, making it effective against bacterial and fungal diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. The lathering volume of the soap ranges from 200-300 ml, total fatty matter from 84-87% and an average pH value of 10, an indication of the absence of free caustic alkali. There is a high demand for the soap locally and it is therefore recommended that its industry be expanded for both local and international markets.


Open Access Review Article

Moringa oleifera: Resource Management and Multiuse Life Tree

Andréa F. S. Santos, Luciana A. Luz, Emmanuel V. Pontual, Thiago H. Napoleão, Patrícia M. G. Paiva, Luana C. B. B. Coelho

Advances in Research, Page 388-402
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/18177

Moringa oleifera Lamarck (Moringaceae family) is a plant native from the Western and sub-Himalayan parts of Northwest India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. This species is widely cultivated across Africa, South-East Asia, Arabia, South America and Caribbean Islands. M. oleifera culture is also being distributed in the Semi-Arid Northeast of Brazil. It is a multiuse life tree with great environmental economic importance in industrial and medical areas. This review reports different purposes of M. oleifera including sustaining environmental resources, soil protection and shelter for animals. This plant requires not much care and distinct parts have bioactive compounds. Moringa tissues used in human and animal diets, also withdraw pollutants from water. The seeds with coagulant properties used in water treatment for human consumption, remove waste products like surfactants, heavy metals and pesticides. The oil extracted from seeds is used in cosmetic production and as biodiesel. M. oleifera tissues also contain proteins with different biological activities, including lectins, chitin-binding proteins, trypsin inhibitors, and proteases. The lectins are reported to act as insecticidal agents against Aedes aegypti (vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fevers) and Anagasta kuehniella (pest of stored products) and also showed water coagulant, antibacterial and blood anticoagulant activities. The presence of trypsin inhibitors has been reported in M. oleifera leaves and flowers. The inhibitor from flowers is toxic to larvae of A. aegypti. The flowers also contain caseinolytic proteases that are able to promote clotting of milk. In this sense, M. oleifera is a promising tree from a biotechnological point of view, since it has shown a great variety of uses and it is a source of several compounds with a broad range of biological activities.