Open Access Case study

An Appraisal of Sacred Spaces in Terms of Inert Strategies; a Case of Bantama, Kumasi

C. Koranteng, S. O. Afram, C. Essel

Advances in Research, Page 304-314
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/16711

Sacred buildings like other types of buildings have to communicate to their users. Users must be comfortable and relate to the spaces provided in a positive way. When buildings are designed to respond passively to their climate, occupants feel comfortable and energy is conserved. The current paper surveys 11 churches within the Bantama locality of Kumasi. Against the background of the immense shortage of energy in Ghana, the study aimed at ascertaining whether these buildings conform to passive design strategies.

In terms of orientation, the study revealed that only 45% of the churches were correctly oriented (longer sides facing the North-South orientation). Window to wall ratio also showed that out of the churches evaluated only one church fell within the range of 25 to 80% as recommended for buildings in the tropics. It was also recognized that these buildings did not have enough shading and as a result, there was a direct solar penetration into the indoor spaces causing visual and thermal discomfort. Adherence to sustainable design principles must be encouraged.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Effects of a Parental Intervention with Mothers of Children with Internalizing Problems

Natália Pinheiro Orti, Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva, Míriam Bratfisch Villa

Advances in Research, Page 279-292
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/16181

The present study assesses the effects of a semi-structured intervention held exclusively with mothers and its effects on internalizing problems, social skills of children, and positive and negative parenting practices. The single subject experimental design with three participants was adopted. The three mothers had, in baseline, children diagnosed with internalizing and externalizing problems. The instruments used were CBCL, RE-HSE-P, QRSH-Pais and PHQ-9, they were performed in baseline, pre-test, post-test, and follow-up assessments. The intervention held is characterized as semi-structured for it promotes the development of parental practices that are considered positive by the literature on behavior problems, however, contingently to the difficulties and demands of each case. The number of sessions performed for each case was 14, 15 and 17, which lasted about two hours each. The data were analyzed according to the instruments' norms and under the perspective of each singular case. The results found include remission of internalizing problems, increase in frequency of the children's social skills, increase in frequency of positive parental practices, and decrease in variability of negative parental practices. All the improvements were maintained on the six months follow-up, with the exception of variability on the negative parental practices of one client. Results are discussed in a context of mental health promotion and indicate the need for strategies to prevent internalizing problems in children.


Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring and Modeling of “Right Decision” Characteristics in Connectedness Decision Paradigm (CDP)

Mirza Hassan Hosseini, Fatemeh Shakhsian

Advances in Research, Page 293-303
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/16595

In Connectedness Decision paradigm (CDP), by integrating spirituality and rationality, spiritual rationality can help maintain connectedness with One as shared inherent purpose in an individual’s life. By considering spiritual rationality, we can gain a right decision: a decision that is rational and spiritual. The main purpose of this research is to explore the main characteristics of Right Decision and present them in the form of a model by using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) method according to experts’ opinion. As a result, 10 main characteristics of right decision be considered and a hierarchy model with three levels has been obtained. The top level represents spiritual aspect of right decision and consists of 3 characteristics: be in Tune with Human Nature, Manifestation of connect with One, and Representation of Awareness. The middle level represents the rational aspect and consists of 3 characteristics: caused to connectedness with others, Faith & Value Based, and based on independent authority. And the last level represents behavioral aspect and consists of 4 characteristics: Right job, caused to calmness, make happiness and Love, and possibility. 


Open Access Original Research Article

Permutation Test, Non-parametric, and Confidence Set Approaches to Multi Group Analysis for Comparing 2 Groups Using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (Pls-Sem)

Asyraf Afthanorhan, Ahmad Nazim Aimran, Sabri Ahmad

Advances in Research, Page 315-328
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/15218

Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) is becoming more prominent as an alternative to Covariance Based Structural Equation Modeling (CB-SEM) because the technique employ is much comfortable. Thereby, this research paper intend to present guide on how to carry on the Partial Least Square based on Multi-Group Analysis (PLS-MGA) using categorical variable. In particular, the discussion of PLS-MGA comprises of three approaches namely permutation test, non-parametric test, and non-parametric confidence set interval. The three approaches are established as non-parametric test in which no statistical assumption of normality is assumed. Thus, this paper is aimed at determining which approach is more appropriate to apply so as to present the guide for readers. Moreover, the practice of Square Multiple Correlation (R2) also has been sustained to identify the importance and performance of each exogenous constructs applied. Once executed three approaches on the same data, two approaches namely permutation test and non-parametric test suggest all of these exogenous constructs applied cannot be moderated via gender group between exogenous and endogenous constructs. In addition, the capability of R2 is proved can be extended to determine the importance and performance of independent variables. This paper is an attempt to show how the three approaches namely permutation test, non-parametric test, and non-parametric confidence set interval is achieved.


Open Access Original Research Article

Biodiesel Causes Oxidative Damage in Tissues of Clarias gariepinus

Olalekan Adeyemi

Advances in Research, Page 329-335
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/17058

Aim: Alternative fuels have become more prominent today because of environmental concerns. Due to the increase in the use of alternative fuels, toxicology studies have become imperative to determine whether alternative fuels will affect the biochemistry of aquatic organisms.

Study Design: In this study, biodiesel in different concentrations (0.0, 0.1, 0.25%v/v) was introduced into water samples of same volume containing species of Clarias gariepinus (African cat fish).

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Environmental Science, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, Nigeria from April to October 2014.

Methodology: The 3 groups of fish placed in (0.0 0.1, 0.25)%v/v biodiesel-contaminated water were sacrificed after 30hours and enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants (GSH, SOD, CAT, and MDA) as well as haematological properties were analyzed.

Results: Specific activity of SOD was found to be 8.55±0.89, 6.25±0.45 and 6.22±0.55 in the kidney of Control, 0.1%v/v and 0.25%v/v fish respectively. Similarly, specific activity of catalase was found to be 18.24±1.89, 15.30±0.76 and 13.39±1.27 in the gills of Control, 0.1%v/v and 0.25%v/v fish respectively. Conversely, the haematological property of Control is not significantly different from those of 0.1%v/v and 0.25%v/v fish. Results from this study showed significant decrease in the antioxidant status of cat fish from biodiesel contaminated water, however, haematological properties of the fish were not affected. This study revealed that biodiesel from palm kernel oil poses threat to aquatic life forms.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Direct Rapid Immunohistochemistry Test for Rabies Diagnosis in the Brain of Slaughtered Dogs in Northern Nigeria

A. Garba, O. V. Modupe, A. A. Dzikwi, A. A. Ogun, A. Zaharaddeen, F. S. Umar, P. A. Okewole, J. U. Umoh, M. S. Ahmed, P. Yager, L. A. Orciari, M. Niezgoda

Advances in Research, Page 336-345
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/14022

Aim: To compare the ability of the direct rapid immunohistochemistry test (DRIT) and the gold standard test, luorescent antibody test, (FAT) to detect rabies virus antigen in the brains of slaughtered dogs from Niger State in the northern region of Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross sectional.

Place and Duration: Department of Veterinary Public Health, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria,  Nigeria and Rabies Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA, between January, 2012 and February, 2013.

Methodology: Four hundred and seventy one (471) dog brain samples were collected through the occipital foramen from dogs destined for human consumption at five dog slaughter points in Niger State during January and July 2012.  Samples were tested by FAT in July, 2012, then the FAT and DRIT were repeated in January, 2013 simultaneously and independently to detect rabies virus antigens.

Results: Of the 471 slaughtered dogs, the same 3 (0.64%) had rabies virus antigens in their brains using both tests. There was absolute agreement between the two tests employed, and all the positive samples had 4+/4+ antigen distribution and the color intensity of the viral antigen.

Conclusion: Detection of rabies viral antigens in slaughtered dogs may pose a serious public health risk, particularly for the dog butchers during purchase, shipment, slaughter and processing periods. The DRIT showed absolute agreement with the standard (FAT), yet does not require an electric incubator and an expensive fluorescence microscope, and thus could be a less expensive alternative test for the detection of rabies virus antigen in slaughtered dogs. It is recommended therefore, to use of DRIT for field surveillance of rabies virus antigen in the brain of slaughtered dogs, particularly in the developing countries where fluorescence microscopy is not readily available due to its prohibitive cost.


Open Access Original Research Article

Multi-parametric Deformations of Peregrine Breathers Solutions to the NLS Equation

Pierre Gaillard

Advances in Research, Page 346-364
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/16827

Aims/ The structure of the solutions to the one dimensional focusing nonlinear Schr¨odinger equation (NLS) for the order in terms of quasi rational functions is given here. We first give the proof that the solutions can be expressed as a ratio of two wronskians of order 2N and then two determinants by an exponential depending on t with 2N − 2 parameters. It also is proved that for the order N, the solutions can be written as the product of an exponential depending on t by a quotient of two polynomials of degree N(+ 1) in and t. The solutions depend on 2N − 2 parameters and give when all these parameters are equal to 0, the analogue of the famous Peregrine breather PN. It is fundamental to note that in this representation at order N, all these solutions can be seen as deformations with 2N − 2 parameters of the famous Peregrine breather PN. With this method, we already built Peregrine breathers until order N = 10, and their deformations depending on 2N − 2 parameters. We present here Peregrine breather of order 11 constructed for the first time.