Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Perceived Organizational Support on Job Stress among Selected Public and Private Sector Employees in Lagos State, Nigeria

T. Odunayo Arogundade, B. Ayodeji Arogundade, Onajobi Adebajo

Advances in Research, Page 541-547
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/14048

This study explored the influence of perceived organizational support on job stress among selected public and private sector employees in Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select three hundred and fifty four (354) participants (M=181: F=173) from both public (n=177) and private organizations (n=177). Two psychological Tests, namely: Perceived Organizational Support Scale (POSS) and the Job Stress Scale (JSS) were completed by the participants and the data collected were analyzed using Pearson’s product moment correlation, independent sample t-tests and simple linear regression at 0.05 level of significance for the purpose of testing the three hypotheses proposed in this study. The results revealed a significant inverse relationship between perceived organizational support and job stress, this implies that an increase in perceived organizational support will lead to a decrease in the level of job stress and vice versa; it was also found that perceived organizational support accounted for 6% variance in job stress and finally, there was no significant difference in the responses to job stress between the participants who had high scores and low scores in perceived organizational support scales. Based on these findings, management should endeavour to provide supportive working environment in order to minimize employees' job stress. However, it is recommended that further researches should be done to ascertain other variables responsible for variances in job stress in workplaces.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Curing Methods on Early-age Strength of Sustainable Foamed Concrete

Alonge O. Richard, Mahyuddin B. Ramli

Advances in Research, Page 548-557
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/13373

Curing is a process aimed at keeping concrete saturated or nearly saturated, so as to ensure complete hydration process of cement. For curing to be done properly, the temperature, duration and condition remain key factors. The rate of hydration is usually controlled by the quality and quantities of the cementitious materials present in the mix as well as the moisture availability and environmental temperature. Lightweight foamed concrete is regarded as a sustainable construction material in the construction industry. Some well known major setbacks such as low tensile and compressive strength, low flexural strength, fractural toughness and increase shrinkage as the ages grows, have been reported with this type of concrete. This work is directed at potential ways of increasing the compressive strength of this material by varying the curing method. Therefore, observing the effects of these variables on the eventual compressive strength of the samples in the early-ages of the concrete. The study was conducted using foamed concrete of 1200kg/m3- 1600kg/m3 density and at the water cement ratio of 0.45. No additives or admixtures were used in this study. The samples were cured using three methods i. e. Water, air and moisture. At the end of the study, the compressive strength of the samples was analysed and the result shows that the samples cured by moisture has the highest compressive strength at 28 days.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Selected Soil Conservation Practices on Soil Properties and Crop Yields in the Usambara Mountains, Tanzania

S. B. Mwango, B. M. Msanya, P. W. Mtakwa, D. N. Kimaro, J. Deckers, J. Poesen, I. Nzunda, S. Ringo

Advances in Research, Page 558-570
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/13647

The Usambara Mountains in Tanzania are severely affected by soil erosion which has led to deterioration of soil properties and reduced crop productivity. Indigenous soil erosion control measures such as miraba which are widely practised in the area have yielded little success. Field plot experiments were laid down in Majulai and Migambo villages from 2011 – 2014 on typical soils of the area (Acrisols). The aim was to single out soil properties developed under the studied soil conservation practices and their impact on crop productivity with reference to maize (Zea mays) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Results showed that total N, OC, available P, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Ph were powerful (P = .05) attributes that discriminated conservation measures. Magnitudes of the discriminating attributes followed the trend: miraba with Tughutu (Vernonia myriantha) mulching >miraba with Tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia) mulching > miraba sole > cropl and with no ‘Soil and Water Conservation’ (SWC) measures (control). Contents ofmicro-nutrients did not differ significantly with SWC measures except for Zn which was significantly (P = .05) lowin the control. Bulk density and available moisture content (AMC) were also strong discriminators of conservation measures. Maize and bean grain yields differed significantly (P = .05)with the trend: miraba with Tughutu > miraba with Tithonia > miraba sole > control in both villages. Crop yields under miraba were a function of AMC and pH (R2= 0.71); AMC, available P, Ca2+ and K+ (R2= 0.89) under miraba with Tithonia mulching; AMC, available P, Ca2+ and K+ (R2= 0.90) under miraba with Tughutu mulching. These findings imply that miraba with Tughutu mulching had greater potential in improving soil properties and crop yields than miraba with Tithonia mulching and miraba sole.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Relationship between Stepping Test, Functional Reach Test and Balance Board Test in Healthy Male Students

Hiroki Sugiura, Shinichi Demura

Advances in Research, Page 571-576
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/14897

Aims: Various tests to assess dynamic balance ability have been developed. The spot stepping (stepping) test assesses balance ability when a person voluntarily moves the body. The functional reach (FR) test assesses balance ability when a person is subjected to added stimulation to make the body unstable. The balance board (BB) test assesses balance ability when a person is subjected to added stimulation while continuously standing on one leg. This study aimed to examine the relationship between each of these tests with regards to dynamic balance ability.

Methodology: The subjects were 37 young males (mean age, 22.8 years; SD, 4.9 years). The time difference between the stipulated tempo (40 bpm) and the real timing of steps in the stepping test, the reach distance for the FR test and the fluctuation index for the BB test were selected as evaluation parameters. In addition, the BB test used the values obtained from the manipulating leg.

Results: A significant and moderate correlation (r = 0.40, p<0.05) was found between the stepping and the BB test. In these tests, the body receives stimulus voluntarily or involuntary. Neither the stepping test nor the BB test showed significant correlation with the FR test during which subjects voluntarily shift their center of gravity forward.

Conclusion: The FR test assesses a very different functional ability than the stepping and BB tests and this explains why the relationships were not high.


Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Cross Section for Different Fusion Reactions in Terms of Lattice Effects in Solid State Internal Conversion for Different Metallic Crystalline Environments

S. N. Hosseinimotlagh, M. Shahamiri

Advances in Research, Page 577-588
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/9685

In the present paper, the cross section of the D(d,p)T, D(d,γ)4He,T(d,n)4He and D(p,γ)3He fusion reactions in terms of the lattice effect in solid state internal conversion for different structures and different metallic crystalline environments in comparison with palladium environment has been determined. Elements that we used in this article are Ni, Ru, Rh, Pt, Ta, Ti, Zr, which are contained FCC, BCC and HCP lattice structures. Fusionable particles are solved as a sublattice in mentioned crystalline metals. Fusion reactions are generated by the flux of incoming fusionable particles. We took lattice effect part in our calculations with regard the Bloch functions for the initial and final state of a three body system. Three-body system involved the host lattice, sublattice and incident particles. The cross section to perform each fusion reaction inside different metal is computed using the state of initial and final system. Then our results for cross section of different metal are compared with palladium metal. Finally, the solid state internal conversion coefficient is obtained by considering the lattice effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Larvicidal Activity of Pistia stratiotes (Water Lettuce) against Larvae of Aedes aegypti

E. E. Ito, J. C. Nmor, J. E. G. Ake, K. Utebor

Advances in Research, Page 589-595
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/13667

The present investigation assesses the larvicidal effect of Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) against early 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti in the laboratory. Mosquito larvae were sampled and larval population was monitored before and after application of plant aqueous extract. To assess the larvicidal activity, four different doses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) mg/L respectively were used in the trials. Larval mortality was monitored after 24, 48 and 72 hours. At the highest dose, mortalities of 97.40, 98.80 and 99.80% for the third instar larvae and 99.70, 97.50 and 97.7% for the fourth instar larvae was observed. The percentage mortality for the fourth instar larvae decreased with hours of exposure. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) conducted on the data, showed that there was significant difference (p>0.05) in mortality between treatments and in hours of exposure. Further, the LC50 and LC90 for the 3rd were 0.11 and 1.44 mg/L while that of the 4th instar larvae were 0.22 and 1.51 mg/L respectively. The study indicated that (P. stratiotes is an effective insecticide against the larvae of A. aegypti. Measures to enhance its use for large scale mosquito control are essential.


Open Access Review Article

Effectiveness of Physiotherapy in the Improvement of the Perception of Quality of Life in Patients with Hemophilia. A Systematic Review

Myriam Martínez-Bravo, Rubén Cuesta-Barriuso

Advances in Research, Page 526-540
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/13607

Background: Hemophilia is a hereditary and chronic disease that mainly affects males. It is characterized by a deficiency in one of the specific clotting factors. The main clinical manifestations of hemophilia are orthopedic, as a result of bleeding in the musculoskeletal system, mainly through bleeding episodes in joints and muscles.

Aim: To assess the effectiveness of treatments of physiotherapy for the improvement in the perception of quality of life in patients with hemophilia A and B.

Methods: This review has been developed a bibliographic search in different databases: PubMed, PEDro, the Virtual Library of health and Isi Web, and in different journals: Haemophilia, Physical Therapy and Manual Therapy.

Results: An analysis of variables was performed and assessed the methodological quality of studies. One study met the criteria for inclusion.

Conclusion: This review shows the small number of studies that evaluate the efficacy of physiotherapy to improve the quality of life of patients with hemophilia. There is no consensus on the relationship between the quality of life and clinical characteristics of patients and characteristic features of hemophilia. Clinical trials are needed to demonstrate the effect of physiotherapy in the quality of life of these patients.