Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Open and Controlled Fermentation on the Proximate and Antinutrient Compositions of Glycine max (Soya Bean)

K. M. Anigo, A. S. Abdullahi, A. Olagunju, A. S. Michael

Advances in Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/10359

Aims: The effect of open and controlled fermentation on the proximate and anti-nutrients compositions of Glycine max were investigated.

Study Design: Ability of fermentation to improving the proximate composition and lowering the antinutrients in G. max was studied.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria-Nigeria, between August 2013 and March 2014.

Methodology: Glycine max seeds were processed and subjected open and controlled fermentation in the presence of Aspergillus niger. Analysis on the proximate and anti-nutritional parameters were conducted in both fermented products.

Results: This study revealed the effects of open and controlled fermentation on physiochemical, the proximate compositions, microbial load and anti-nutritional factors in Glycine max. Range from moisture: (2.173 – 10.033)%, temperature: (25±3ºC), color of spores: (black), microbial spore suspension: (1.06 × 107 spores/25 g), crude protein (25.247 – 36.502)%, crude fiber: (7.061 – 1.253)%, crude lipid: (13.549 – 21.474)%, ash: (7.061 – 3.520)%, nitrogen free extract: (44.176 – 27.217)%, odour: (pleasant chocking), phytates: (26.140 – 9.138mg/100g), cyanide: (0.258 – 0.06mg/100g). The effects of open fermentation were very pronounced compared to the      controlled fermentation.

Conclusion: It could be concluded that A. niger is not effective as the open in G. max fermentation.


Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Landuse/Landcover Change in Damaturu Town of Yobe State, Nigeria

Ahmed Abubakar Jajere, Muhammad Isma’il, Ibrahim Jaro Musa

Advances in Research, Page 7-19
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/8364

Landuse/landcover change detection is an essential process in monitoring and managing natural resources and urban development because it provides quantitative analysis of the spatial pattern, distribution, and variation of the physical and cultural landscape features. Damaturu town became the capital of Yobe State when it was created in 1991. Since then, Damaturu has been experiencing rapid changes in the landuse/landcover types due to urban expansion, economic development, and social transformation in the town. Therefore, there is a need to examine the trend and pattern of these changes for proper planning and development of the town. This study examined the dynamics of landuse/landcover change of Damaturu town from 1986 to 2009 using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System techniques. The following satellite imageries of Damaturu Township were obtained and processed for the analysis: LandSat MSS – 1985 and 1991; Landsat ETM – 1999, and Nig-sat1 ETM of 2009. The images were resampled, rectified and georeferenced to the UTM map projection. A supervised classification approach and maximum likelihood algorithm was used for landuse evaluation and mapping from Landsat data with spatial resolution of 30m. In order to detect landuse/landcover change of Damaturu town from 1986 to 2009, a modified version of supervised scheme was adopted to classify the images into five classes: the built-up, bare surface, cultivated land, wetland and shrubland. The change detection also used the information collected through field survey to complement the results of GIS analysis. Findings revealed that between 1986 and 1991, there were no significant landuse/landcover changes that have taken place in Damaturu town. After the creation of Yobe State in 1991, the policies of planning authorities played vital role in determining the urban landuse pattern which is described as bottleneck along the main roads and consequently the stratification of the lands within the town into high density, medium density, and low density areas within this period (1991-1999). During this period, Damaturu built-up area increased about four times. This significant increase led to corresponding increase in urban area which was responsible for significant decrease of bare surface and shrub land. From 1999 to 2005, the built-up area of Damaturu increased by 7 Km2 while the urban area expanded by about 11 Km2. In addition the large increase of cultivation during that period cannot be unconnected with increased agriculture to meet the demand of the growing population. However, the reduction of bare surface by more than half is the most remarkable of all the landcover changes that have taken place within this period. The growth pattern within this period could be described as radial. Moreover, it was observed that the high density built-up spread out from core-traditional city centre to medium density areas. Within the period of 4 years (2005-2009), the expansion of built-up area of Damaturu was not as significant as the reduction of more than two-third of the wetland, and there was also significant reduction of shrub land. However, the reduction of bare surface during this period is insignificant as development of the town has been steady for quite sometimes. Damaturu areal extent increases geometrically while built-up areas and population increase arithmetically. In addition, findings from field survey revealed serious abuse of the masterplan and development plan of Damaturu town leading to many environmental problems in the town. There is urgent need to review and implement the present Damaturu masterplan to accommodate the present and future changes in the town.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Fluidization Velocity and Equivalence Ratio on the Energy and Exergy of the Syngas Produced from Wheat Straw in A Dual-distributor Type Fluidized Bed Gasifier

Yaning Zhang, Abdel Ghaly, Ali Ergudenler, Bingxi Li

Advances in Research, Page 20-35
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/7751

Aim: Exergy is a measurement of how far a certain material deviates from a state of equilibrium with the environment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the energy and exergy of a syngas obtained from the gasification of wheat straw.

Methodology: A pilot scale dual distributor fluidized bed gasifier was used to gasify wheat straw at various fluidization velocities (0.28, 0.33 and 0.37m/s) and equivalence velocities (0.17, 0.20, 0.25 and 0.35).

Results: The energy values of CO, H2, N2, CO2, CH4, C2H4 and C2H6 varied within the ranges of 3466.27-5790.62, 570.34-2025.86, 774.42-1973.99, 343.22-726.34, 1970.30-3694.93, 1225.03-3453.06 and 0.00-456.65 kJ/kg fuel, respectively. The overall energy distribution was CO>CH4>C2H4>(H2& N2)>(CO2 & C2H6). The results showed that increasing the FV from 0.28 to 0.37 (32.14%), initially decreased the total energy of syngas and then increased it, resulting in a net increase of 7.90-19.80% depending on the ER used. However, when the ER was increased from 0.17 to 0.35 (105.88%), the total energy of syngas increased by 61.82-77.70% depending on the FV used. The effect of the ER on the total energy of syngas was much greater than that of the FV. The exergy values of CO, H2, N2, CO2, CH4, C2H4 and C2H6 varied within the ranges of 3123.99-5200.75, 433.63-1548.33, 224.62-751.35, 262.97-751.35, 1780.38-3327.70, 1151.65-3237.09 and 0.00-425.11 kJ/kg fuel, respectively. The overall exergy distribution was CO>CH4>C2H4>H2>(C2H6& CO2 & N2). Increasing the FV from 0.28 to 0.37 (32.14%) increased the total exergy of the syngas by 8.62-21.35% depending on the ER used. On the other hand, increasing the ER 0.17 to 0.35 (105.88%) increased the total exergy of the syngas by 63.86-79.83% depending on the FV used. The effect of the ER on the total exergy of syngas was also much greater than that of the FV.

Conclusions: The exergy values of the syngas were lower than their energy values because the gas components contributed differently to the energy and exergy (the physical exergy of gas components are lower than the corresponding physical energy and the chemical exergy of combustible gases are lower than the corresponding chemical energy). The highest energy (16861.89kJ/kg fuel) and exergy (14532.49kJ/kg fuel) of syngas were obtained at the FV of 0.28 m/s and the ER of 0.35.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Natural Ice Nuclei to Deposited Silver Iodide

E. Keith Bigg

Advances in Research, Page 36-48
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/13016

Aim: To demonstrate that deposition of silver iodide particles on the ground creates secondary ice nuclei and that these interfere with analyses of experiments designed to increase rainfall.

Methods: Measurements of ice nucleus concentrations following the cessation of deposition of silver iodide during cloud seeding show that persistent secondary nuclei had been generated. The information is used to predict the effects on analyses of cloud seeding experiments. Effects on rainfall in large areas surrounding cloud seeding operations are then examined.

Results: The predictions have explained effects such as a decrease in seeding effects with increasing application of silver iodide or with the duration of its application. Widespread downwind increases in rainfall appear to have accompanied all cloud seeding experiments. The explanation offered is that silver iodide increases the airborne concentration of ice nucleating bacteria or their properties. The secondary nuclei appear to be more efficient in stimulating rainfall than the silver iodide nuclei.

Conclusions: Attempts to increase precipitation from clouds by seeding with silver iodide ice nuclei has been motivated by water shortages in many parts of the world. This paper has indicated that the frequent apparent slight or negligible success of such operations may have been due to the influence of the silver on ice nuclei of microbiological origin. An understanding of that influence is urgently required. Much larger and more widespread gains in rainfall than have been found in the past might then be obtained.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lecithin: Cholesterol Acyltransferase Activity and Homocysteine Levels are Better Associated with Lipid Profile Indices Compared to Glycemic Control Indices in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

Manouchehr Nakhjavani, Zaniar Ghazizadeh, Zahra Banihashemi, Negin Abedinzadeh, Arash Aghajani Nargesi, Afsaneh Morteza, Azam Ghaneei, Alireza Esteghamati, Hossein Mirmiranpour

Advances in Research, Page 49-59
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/12410

Aims: Homocysteine (Hcy) level, LCAT activity, and HDL-C concentration and oxidative/anti-oxidative capacities are well-established factors in determining cardiovascular disease risk in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the association between these factors and lipid profile and glycemic control variables remains to be unveiled. We aimed to assess accuracy of LCAT activity and Hcy for dyslipidemia and poor glycemic control screening in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Study Design: This case control study was conducted in Vali-Asr hospital affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

Methodology: We quantified FBS, HDL-C, HbA1c, Hcy, LCAT activity and other lipid profiles markersin a total of 41 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus along with 41 matched healthy subjects.

Results: Linear regression and correlation analysis revealed that Hcy had a positive correlation with LCAT activity only in HDL levels above 40 mg/dl. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves testing LCAT activity in prediction of hyperhomocysteinemia as the state variable for both control subjects and patients, showed the one for patients with diabetes being more shifted up and to the left than for control subjects. In addition, both Hcy and LCAT activity predicted lipid profile variables more precisely than glycemic control variables.

Conclusion: LCAT activity could be considered as one of the factors predicting hyperhomocysteinemia and therefore indirectly associated with cardiovascular events and it is more specific and sensitive in patients with diabetes compared to control subjects. However neither Hcy and nor LCAT activity, are able to predict diabetes and/or diabetes associated oxidative stress. These factors might be more associated with diabetes related dyslipidemia.


Open Access Original Research Article

Petrographic Analysis and Total organic content (TOC) of Mudstone Inclusions in Igneous Intrusives in Lower Benue Trough, Nigeria

N. Ukpabi, E. E. Etuk

Advances in Research, Page 60-70
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/11962

The lower Benue trough is a linear, intracratonic, graben basin, trending ne-sw. The trough is characterized by an uplifted basement block, flanked by deep basin containing about 6km of sediments. The study area which is part of the lower Benue trough comprises of igneous rock types that are predominantly intermediate to basic in nature. From petrological studies, the rocks are made up of intermediate to high temperature minerals. Total organic carbon (TOC) content tests were conducted on the mudstone inclusions in the pyroclastics, and values range from 0.60%wt- 0.86%wt. The classification of source quality by total organic content (TOC) percent shows that the source quality is fair. This indicates that prior to the eruption, the study area may have had higher organic carbon content but the heat that accompanied the eruption baked the source rock into mudstones thereby reducing the source rock quality. The thermal effect of the igneous intrusions may have increased the temperature above the oil window limit.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Inflation-Hedging Performance and Risk-Return Characteristics of Residential Property Investments in Gombe, Nigeria

Daniel Ibrahim Dabara

Advances in Research, Page 71-83
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/12221

Purpose:  This study aims at investigating the inflation-hedging performance of residential property investments in Gombe metropolis Nigeria.

Design/Methodology/Approach: Questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain primary data on rental and capital values of residential properties from branch managers of Estate Surveying and Valuation Firms in the study area, this was subsequently translated to total returns. Similarly, secondary data with respect to the Nigerian Consumer Price Index (CPI) which was used as a proxy for actual inflation and the 90-day Treasury bill rates (used as proxy for unexpected inflation) for the period between 2003 and 2012 were also collected from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) and the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) respectively. The unexpected inflation was calculated as the difference between the actual and expected inflation. The 3 groups of data obtained for the study were subjected to Phillip-Perron unit root test as well as the Odinary Least Square Regression analysis.

Findings: The study revealed that the inflation-hedging performance of residential property investments in Gombe metropolis vis-à-vis the actual inflation provides a partial hedge (with beta 0.061), vis-à-vis the expected inflation provides a complete hedge (with beta 0.678) and vis-à-vis the unexpected inflation provides a perverse hedge (with beta -0.454).

Practical Implications: Inflation-hedging performance of investment asset classes is of particular interest to investors. The results of this study can be useful for investment forecasts as well as investment decisions on asset types to include in portfolios as a measure for protecting investors’ earnings from erosion by inflation.

Originality/Value: Research work on the subject of inflation-hedging capabilities in Nigeria majorly focused on commercial real estate and stocks in the Southwestern region of Nigeria. This study expanded the scope of the inflation-hedging literature by empirically investigating the inflation hedging performance of residential real estate investments in Northern Nigeria (Gombe metropolis).


Open Access Original Research Article

Magnetic Hyperthermia Behavior of Electrospun Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) Nanofibers Containing Magnetic Oxide Materials

Justin Kim, Sharon Zhu, Yong X. Gan, Keith Forward

Advances in Research, Page 84-91
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/13547

Electromagnetic hyperthermia has been attracting significant attention in treating cancerous cells due to its non-invasive and quick recovery time. In this work, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)solutions containing magnetic materials were used to make nanofibers through electrospinning. Transition metal oxides including cobalt oxide and iron oxide were selected as the magnetic responsive materials. The electrospun magnetic materials containing nanofibers were tested through the exposure to an external electromagnetic field to examine the increase in temperatures. It is found that the temperatures of the nanofibers increased high enough (above 43°C) to damage or eliminate cancer cells within 25 seconds. Comparisons of the hyperthermia behaviors of variousoxideswere studied as well.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Potency of Scaffolding and Demonstration Instruction Methods on Student’s Achievement in Technical Colleges in Akwa Ibom State

King Sam Ibritam, Nsikak- Abasi Udofia, Vincent Eze Onweh

Advances in Research, Page 92-101
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/12182

This study was designed to determine the difference in students’ achievement in Block-laying and Concreting using Scaffolding and Demonstration Instructional Methods in Technical Colleges in Akwa Ibom State. This was an attempt to test the potency of scaffolding as a teaching method in technical education having found it useful in other courses. A Quasi Experimental design was adopted for the study. Two hundred and forty six senior technical two students offering Block-laying and Concreting from six public Technical Colleges in Akwa Ibom State constituted the population of the study. A sample of 90 subjects drawn through simple random sampling technique of three out of the six public Technical Colleges in Akwa Ibom State was used for the study. The Experimental and Control groups were taught Block-laying and Concreting topics from NABTEB syllabus and tested by the regular Research Assistants. An instrument titled Block-laying and Concreting Achievement Test (BCAT) developed by the researcher and validated by three experts was used for data collection. The reliability co-efficient indices of the instrument using Cronbach’s Alpha ranged from 0.86 to 0.96. The independent t-test was used in testing hypothesis. The result showed that: Scaffolding Instructional Method can be used in teaching workshops-based subjects such as Block-laying and Concreting. Based on these findings it is recommended, among others that institutions training technical teachers should incorporate Scaffolding Instructional Method as one of the method in their curriculum used in training student-teachers in block-laying and concreting.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Choroidal Thickness in Normal Subjects and Patients with Diabetes

Ihsan Yilmaz, Zeynep Alkin, Abdullah Ozkaya, Ahmet Taylan Yazici

Advances in Research, Page 102-106
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/13245

Aims: To evaluate choroidal thickness in diabetes patients and compare the measurements with normal subjects.

Study Design: Cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Beyoglu Eye Training and Research Hospital, Department of Retina, between April 2014 and July 2014.

Methodology: 100 eyes of 100 diabetic patients (58 female, 42 male) and 50 eyes of 50 healthy subjects (28 female, 22 male) were included in this study. 50 patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDRP) and 50 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) involved consecutively start from April 2014. Patients with macular edema were excluded. Choroidal thickness (CT) measured subfoveal and 500 μm intervals up to 1000 μm temporal and nasal to the fovea via Spectralis OCT EDI mode. 

Results: There was no difference in age between the groups (p>0.05). The mean CT was 262.4±14.1 μm in control group, 221.2±34.3 μm in NPDRP group and 201.2±27.8 μm in PDR group. The subfoveal CT was significantly thinner in eyes with NPDRP or PDR than normal subjects (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between eyes with NPDRP and PDR (p>0.05).

Conclusion: Diabetic retinopathy effects CT and the central choroid is thinner in patients with NPDRP and PDR.