Open Access Case study

Investigating the Food Supply Chain Issues and Marketing Strategies of Milk Meat and Vegetables in Peri-Urban area of Jhang Pakistan

Nadeem Abbas Shah, Raees Abbas, Muhammad Hammad Raza, Sulman Atta, Tanvir Ali, Babar Shahbaz

Advances in Research, Page 626-634
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/9224

Peri-urban areas are situated at the urban margin. The mass migration of people from rural to urban areas makes a high saturation due to industrialization. Hence, there is immense requirement of food commodities like meat, milk and highly perishable vegetables and fruits for feeding the multiplying population. Livestock productions of Peri urban areas fulfill the needs and demands of urban areas but at the same time effect and pollute the environment. Livestock sector of Peri urban areas is not well established due to lack of resources, recommendations and policies. Hence population pressure is increasing day by day in Peri-urban areas resulting in unbalance utilization of available opportunities. In this regard, present research was conducted with main emphasis to explore food supply chain in Peri-urban areas. The study was conducted in the selected Peri-urban areas of Jhang city (Punjab, Pakistan) with total sample size of 120 respondents. Both qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques were used and findings revealed numerous problems related with Peri-urban food supply chain in study area along with immense potential of existing opportunities. Price fluctuation, low income, low land holding capacity, use of low standard food and unhygienic food are the major problems of study area. Price fluctuation was affecting living standard of Peri urban dweller and their economic condition. Price fluctuation was affecting economy and food quality also. The food was available in fewer prices but the quality of food was not up to standard.


Open Access Short Research Article

Gene Expression Analysis by Quantitative Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction of Glenohumeral Joint Synoviumin in Primary Frozen Shoulders

Mamoru Yoshida, Hiroki Funasaki, Soki Kato, Keishi Marumo

Advances in Research, Page 635-644
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10328

Background: Primary frozen shoulder is a condition characterized by painful and limited active and passive range of motion. Although the etiology is still uncertain, synovial fibrosis and adhesion were shown in glenohumeral joints of frozen shoulders. The messenger RNA expressions of three isoforms for hyaluronan synthase and of cytokines correlating with fibrosis and adhesion were analyzed for the synovium of glenohumeral joints in frozen shoulders to find possible molecular marker(s) correlated with pathogenesis of the disease.

Methods: Synovium from the upper border of the subscapularis muscle tendon in the glenohumeral joint was obtained from 10 primary frozen shoulders and 8 healthy control donors. The messenger RNA expressions were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction after isolation of the total messenger RNA from the collected synovia. Statistical analyses were done using the Mann Whitney U test.

Results: The messenger RNA expressions of three isoforms of hyaluronan synthase, which produce high molecular weight hyaluronan, in synovium of frozen shoulders were significantly lower than those in the control synovium (p<0.01). The messenger RNA expressions of interleukin-8 and interferon-γ, which induce angiogenesis or fibrosis, were significantly greater than those in control samples (p<0.01).

Conclusion: Decreased messenger RNA expressions of hyaluronan synthase isoforms and/or increased expressions of messenger RNAs for interleukin-8 and interferon-γ may correlate with the pathogenesis of frozen shoulder.


Open Access Original Research Article

Moringa oleifera (Lam) as a Protein Supplement in Clarias gariepinus Diet

A. A. Adewumi

Advances in Research, Page 580-589
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10399

This experiment was carried out to investigate chemical properties of Moringa oleifera and the effects of dietary levels of Moringa oleifera leaves on the growth performance and feed utilization for Clarias gariepinus fry. The study was carried out in aquarium tanks, for a period of 8 weeks, in the months of April-May, 2013, at the Aquaculture Centre of the Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. Biochemical  analyses  of samples  were  performed, at  the  Animal  Science  and  Central  Science  Laboratories  of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife. The trial diets were fed to triplicate groups (n=30) of C. gariepinus fry (average weight of 2.0g ±0.1). Fish samples were collected and individual weight and length were measured, biweekly. The MWG, FWG and  FCR  of  the  fish fed  diets  M0,  M5,  M10 were  not significantly  different  (P>0.05)  from  one  another,  while  these  were  significantly  different (P=.05) from the performance of the fish fed M20 and M30 diets. The DWG and SGR of the Moringa meal-based diets were not significantly different (p>0.05) from any of the dietary treatments. The results indicate that Moringa oleifera leaf meal can be  used  to  replace  up  to  10%  of  the  fish  meal  in  C.  gariepinus fry diet,  without adverse  effects  on  survival  and  growth performance. Whereas, the higher replacing levels in diets significantly (p<0.05) reduced the growth and feed utilization parameters.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation the Effects of VitB6 on the Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome: A Clinical Randomized Trial

Zafari Mandana, Aghamohammady Azar

Advances in Research, Page 590-595
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10181

Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a regularly appearance number of symptoms during luteal phase of menstruation. The purpose of this study was, determination the effect of Vit B6 on treatment this syndrome.

Method: Two hundred girls who had moderate and severe form of premenstrual syndrome, selected randomly and divided in two groups.  First group received 40 mg Vit B6 daily for three months and, and second group received daily one tablet of placebo for three months. Also they filled Rosignol Bonlender check list during use of drug. Data analyzed by SPSS version 19 and severity of symptoms compare before & after intervention in each group, and after treatment in two groups.

Result: Severity of physical, mental, physical and mental symptoms in patients who receive Vit B6 and placebo had reduced (p< 0.05).

Conclusion: Vit B6 is effective on PMS.


Open Access Original Research Article

Orthogonal Double Covers of Kn,n by Infinite Classes of Disjoint Unions of Certain Complete Bipartite Spanning Subgraphs

S. El-Serafi, R. El-Shanawany, A. El-Mesady

Advances in Research, Page 596-604
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10262

An orthogonal double cover (ODC) of any graph H  is a collection of spanning subgraphs of H such that every two of them share exactly one edge at most, and every edge of the graph H belongs to exactly two of the spanning graphs. In this paper, we are concerned with the orthogonal double covers of complete bipartite graphs by infinite classes of disjoint unions of certain complete bipartite spanning subgraphs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Maceration Time on Micronutrient Concentrations of Canarium schweinfurthii Pulp Flour

Michael O. Monanu, Ernest A. Anyalogbu, Eugene N. Onyeike

Advances in Research, Page 605-617
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/9034

The effect of wet heat-processing on the micronutrient composition of Canarium schweinfurthii (CS) pulps eaten as traditional snack in most parts of Nigeria was investigated. Fresh wholesome seeds of C. schweinfurthii, obtained from Aba (Abia State, Nigeria) were washed in several changes of distilled water and divided into four lots. The first lot was used raw (CSraw) and the 2nd, 3rd and 4th macerated in water (55ºC) for 15, 30 and 45min to obtain CS15, CS30 and CS45 respectively. CS30 represents sample traditionally processed to accepted cooking tenderness. The raw and wet-heat treated seed pulps, dried for 48hr in air-circulatory oven (50ºC) and milled into flours were evaluated for vitamin and mineral contents using standard methods. The mineral and vitamin contents of the plant food were affected by the processing method. There were progressive increase in the concentrations of Ca, Na, P, Zn, and Pb; and decrease in those of Fe, I, K and Mg as maceration time was increased. The concentrations of Cu, Mn and Se were increased to their peak values and then reduced as the processing time was extended. Highest values were obtained (per 100g sample) for Fe (7.78mg), I (12.0µg), K (11.34mg) and Mg (8.37mg) in CSraw; Ca (21.41mg), Cu (289.33µg) and Mn (4.76mg) in CS15; Na (23.36mg), Se (8.0µg) and Pb (122.67µg) in CS30 and; P (21.33µg) and Zn (1.79mg) in CS45. Vitamins C (2.37mg/100g) and E (1.97mg/100g) were the most abundant vitamins in the sample. The concentrations of all the vitamins investigated increased to their respective peaks values at 15min maceration (CS15) and then, with exception of thiamine, reduced with the extension of the processing time to 45min. It can be concluded that maceration for 15-30mins improves the micronutrient contents of CS pulp.


Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Prison Inmates at Mbarara Central Prison, South Western Uganda

Judith Owokuhaisa, Eric Thokerunga, Joel Bazira

Advances in Research, Page 618-625
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10676

Aims: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis among prison inmates at Mbarara Central prison

Design: A cross sectional study was carried out at Mbarara Central Prison in Mbarara district, Kiswahili cell in Mbarara municipality among female and male prison in mates between June 2012 to August 2012. A questionnaire was administered to each prison inmate who consented in writing and two sputum specimens were collected and examined by Ziehl-Neelsen technique.

Results: At the time of the study, the prison had 900 inmates (both males and females). A total of 648 in mates were screened and 248 inmates enrolled in the study.  Of the 248 inmates, 5 inmates were new cases of TB while 29 inmates were already on TB treatment. The median age of participants was 28 years (23.5-33 IQR) and 96.4% were males with majority (22.6%) coming from Mbarara as a home district. The participants had stayed in prison for a median duration of 2 years (1-3 IQR) and 23.7% had ever been in prison before. The median number of inmates per cell was 140 (138-149 IQR) and inmates (female and male) had a body mass index of 21.4 (19.9-22.6 IQR) and 20.2 (19.2-26.7 IQR) respectively. Of the inmates evaluated, 68.8% reported cough for 2 or more weeks. Other symptoms reported were weight loss (in 40.7%) and night sweats (in 35.8%). Of the 248 inmates evaluated, 95 inmates were tested for HIV and 4.1% were HIV serology positive.  

Conclusion: The prevalence of TB in Mbarara Central prison South Western Uganda is low but calls for continued surveillance through regular TB screening.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Value of Soft-Skills in the Accounting Profession: Perspectives of Current Accounting Students

Sunil Ramlall, Dhanmati Ramlall

Advances in Research, Page 645-654
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/11000

With employers increasingly demanding a greater range of softer skills such as effective communication, the paper is intended to identify current accounting students’ perspectives on soft skills, identify their self-assessed competence in the respective soft skills, and suggest ways in which accounting students can gain soft skills.  We assessed students’ level of perception/knowledge of soft skills, its’ importance and their self-assessment of their level of possession of these skills. With a sample size of 313 participants, we found that there were fewer gaps in what students perceived as being important in the accounting profession and how prepared they are in fulfilling the expectations.  In addition, we found that the universities were placing more emphasis on developing these soft skills that have shown to be beneficial in students’ careers.


Open Access Original Research Article

Medicinal Potential of Acalypha wilkesiana Leaves

Omage Kingsley, Azeke A. Marshall

Advances in Research, Page 655-665
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/9452

Background and Aim: Acalypha wilkesiana, commonly called Irish petticoat, is native to the south pacific islands and belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. The plant has antimicrobial and antifungal properties and in traditional medicine, the leaves are eaten as vegetables in the management of hypertension, being a diuretic plant. This study was conducted to determine some phytochemical (quantitative) constituents of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves, with a view to evaluating its medicinal potentials.

Method and Design: The samples (ethanol extract, aqueous extract and dried powder) of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves were analyzed for the presence of phytochemicals according to standard methods.

Results: Quantitative analysis of these phytochemicals in the leave extracts (aqueous or ethanol) and powder of this plant revealed the presence of medicinally active constituents like saponins (0.44% in the aqueous extract, 0.22% in the ethanol extract and 0.23% in the powdered leaves), cardiac glycosides (0.031% in the aqueous extract, 0.073% in the ethanol extract and 0.099% in the powdered leaves), alkaloids (0.92% in the aqueous extract, 3.20% in the ethanol extract and 2.62% in the powdered leaves) and oxalate (2.4% in the aqueous extract, 16.2% in the ethanol extract and 18.6% in the powdered leaves). Other phytochemicals found were tannins, phenols, steroids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, phytate and terpenoids.

Discussion and Conclusion: The various phytochemical compounds detected are known to have beneficial use in industries and medical sciences, and also exhibit physiological activity. The plant (Acalypha wilkesiana) studied here can be seen as a potential source of useful drugs.


Open Access Original Research Article

Complications of Atticoantral Otitis Media – Revisited

B. Viswanatha, Khaja Naseeruddin

Advances in Research, Page 666-695
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10494

Complications of chronic otitis media are still a common otological problem in the developing countries. Though the incidence has been reduced with the introduction of higher antibiotics, they are still seen commonly in the developing countries and in rural areas. The incidence of multiple complications is increasing in the present days. This is due to lack of adequate otological surgical & radiological facilities in the developing counties. Despite the advent of antibiotics and advancement in our knowledge and skills in managing otitis media, serious complications still exist. This prospective study was undertaken to study the presentations and management of atticoantral type of chronic suppurative otitis media with complications. This study was done in a tertiary care medical college hospital from 2008 to 2013.