Open Access Case study

Delirium Due to Datura stramoniun Ingestion: A Case Report

Muhittin Serkan Yilmaz, Bahattin Işık, Murat Ongar, Cemil kavalci, Alper Gorkem Solakoglu, Miray Baba, Gulsum Kavalci, Omer Salt

Advances in Research, Page 523-527
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10167

Introduction: Datura stramonium, known as devils apple or tatula by Turkish people. It is a plant known as a member of belladonna alkaloid family contains atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine that are having hallucinogenic and anticholinergic effects. In our study we described a case presented by delirium to our emergency department with later diagnosed as Datura stramonium poisoning.

Presentation of Case: 19 years old male patient admitted to our emergency department by his relatives with the complaints of altered mental status, yelling, and meaningless speech. He was conscious at the time of admission but place, time and person orientation was altered with no cooperation. Ten mg midazolam was administrated intravenously to the patient because he was further harm caused by him to himself and environment. After further monitorisation for 8 hours patient were discharged safely. 

Discussion and Conclusion: Herbal wealth of Turkey is widespread. Turkish people are traditionally more prone to usage of herbal medicine. Also drug abuse is a growing problem in the country.


Open Access Original Research Article

Computational Basis for Human Relations

Syed V. Ahamed

Advances in Research, Page 528-542
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10687

In this paper, we present a seminal step into the “science of social programming” for computer and communication systems.  Most human relations though frail and fragile, have scientific basis and methodology that are programmable behind them.  Relations progress through incremental stages and become reflective gemstones in the emotional human bondage between people. Transactions, events, episodes and relations evolve and sparkle as desires and sentiments that become living memories and longings.   Such short- and long-term stages mould human feelings into masterpieces of passion, poetry and art.  These states of mind, that linger as winding pathways in the psyche are amenable to computational techniques and can act as AI based self learning programs and as leading indicator of the impending curvature of relations.  These pathways have an origin, a destination and numerous contours in between. Path finding and routing algorithms are applicable and the software and database techniques become applicable to the content-management and to the relationships between the numerous aspects of the personalities of any interacting social object(s) with the other or many others. Based on the two adjoining disciplines of social and computer sciences, it becomes feasible to define the constructs and designs of social machines that analyze, follow and guide social transactions, events, episodes and relations to one or more desired conclusion. The processing and storage of personal traits and their influences on the future interactions are well accommodated in PDA or iPOD type of hand held device and acts as a global social positioning system in the various social norms and cultural environment of individuals, corporations and nations. Such a system would serve as a computer aided social GPS of the future, particularly useful for immature adults, new students, hospital patients and cultural transplants.


Open Access Original Research Article

Validation of Decision Cut off Values of Serum Albumin and Prothrombin Time for Differentiating between Compensated and Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis

Kaushik Kar, Anindya Dasgupta, Suparna Roy, Satwika Sinha, Ushasi Banerjee

Advances in Research, Page 543-555
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10443

Aims: Serum bilirubin, albumin and prothrombin time are the most commonly measured parameters to assess the progress of hepatic cirrhosis. No widely accepted cut off values for these parameters are available for an early diagnosis of the decompensation process of hepatic cirrhosis. We aimed to establish the cut off values for these parameters with maximum sensitivity and minimum false positivity   between 30 decompensated and 33 compensated cirrhosis patients through ROC curves for making a medical decision at the earliest.

Study Design: It was a hospital based, cross sectional, observational study. Both of the case and control groups were selected by the method of convenience.

Place and Duration of Study: Study subjects were analyzed in the Department of Medicine (Medical Unit II), Department of Biochemistry and Department of Radiology, Mamata Medical College, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh, India between Jan 2009 and Feb 2010.

Methodology: Sample: 63 patients (40 men, 23 women; age range 20-60 years) diagnosed as hepatic cirrhosis on the basis of clinical, biochemical and ultrasonographic features were included as the case group in the study. Thirty-five (35) age and sex matched normal healthy subjects were included in the control group. Patients with portal hypertension, ascitis, encephalopathy and with the medical history of gastrointestinal bleeding, were put in the decompensated group (n =30). Cases without the above criteria were selected in the compensated group (n =33).

Results: Cirrhosis patients showed significant increase in serum bilirubin level (6.79 +/- 2.19 vs 0.86 +/- 0.02, P<0.001) and prothormbin time (20.13 +/- 2.25 vs 15.54 +/- 0.63, P<0.001) with opposite trend with serum albumin (3.05 +/- 0.62 vs 3.69 +/- 0.83, P<0.001) when compared to normal control group. Furthermore, the decompensated group showed a significant rise in serum bilirubin (8.90 +/- 0.78 vs 4.80 +/- 0.79, P<0.001) and prothrombin time (21.44 +/- 2.5 vs 18.93 +/- 0.84, P<0.001) with a decrease of serum albumin (2.8 +/- 0.36 vs 3.2 +/- 0.76, P<0.027) in comparision to compensated group. ROC analysis for the serum albumin level and prothrmbin time between the compensated and decompensated groups showed their cut off values to be 2.97g/dl and 19.47 seconds respectively. No cut off value for serum bilirubin could be obtained due to non overlapping values between the two groups.

Conclusion: The calculated cuts off values of serum albumin and prothrombin time in our study indicate the transition phase between the compensatory and decompensatory groups of hepatic cirrhosis. As early detection of the decompensation process can guide the clinicians to take the proper management to reduce the complications and mortality significantly, these cut off values would provide useful diagnostic and therapeutic tools in these patients.


Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Obesity Potential of Gallic Acid from Labisia pumila, through Augmentation of Adipokines in High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in C57BL/6 Mice

Anjali Pandey, Sarang Bani, Payare Lal Sangwan

Advances in Research, Page 556-570
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10182

Aims: The incidence of obesity has increased at an alarming rate in recent years, becoming a worldwide health problem. Anti-obesity drugs available have hazardous side-effects, thus, a wide variety of natural materials are being explored for their anti-obesity potential. This study was undertaken to investigate the activity of Gallic acid (GA), a compound isolated from aqueous leaf extract from Labisia pumila (LPPM/A003) on its potential to prevent obesity.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Department of Pharmacology, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Council of Scientific and industrial research, Jammu (J and K) for duration of 12 months.

Methodology: All the test materials were initially screened for In-vitro adipocyte differentiation. The active sample was selected for In-vivo anti-obesity effect in high fat diet induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice and the biochemical and molecular parameters were measured.

Results: In In-vitro screening, both LPPM/A003 and GA had inhibitory effect on fat droplet formation and triglyceride accumulation. The concentration at which GA showed 50% inhibition was 19.86μg/ml. The In-vivo studies in obese mice decreased the weight in GA treated animals. Excessive secretion of leptin in case of obesity leads to disrupted functions of hypothalamus and GA showed promise by inhibiting Leptin. Obesity is considered as a state of low-grade inflammation and inflammation is regarded as cause or consequence of obesity. It also inhibited the increased expression of TNF- α and IL-6 in serum of treated animals. GA inhibited the increase in serum levels of Triglyceride, LDL and VLDL. HDL levels were elevated at all the dose levels with significant increase at 8mg/kg dose.

Conclusion: Gallic acid is an effective compound capable of modulating diet induced weight gain in obese mice. Research in this field paves the way to discover new treatments for obesity.


Open Access Original Research Article

Birth Outcomes of Cases with Single Ventricle Complex – A Population-Based Case-Control Study

Attila Vereczkey, Melinda Csáky-Szunyogh, Balázs Gerencsér, Andrew E. Czeizel

Advances in Research, Page 571-579
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10578

Aims: The aim of this paper was to study the birth outcomes of cases with single ventricle complex (SVC), a rare congenital heart defect, as homogeneously as possible.

Study Design: For the analysis of cases, the large dataset of the population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities was used.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Budapest based on the data set of the HCCSCA between 1980 and 1996 but the follow-up of cases was performed in 2008-2011.

Methodology: Syndromic/multiple cases with the component SCV were excluded and only live-born cases based on autopsy report in lethal cases and on medical documents after surgical correction were included to the study. Medically recorded birth outcomes of 76 cases with SVC and 38,151 population controls without defect were compared but maternal socio-demographic variables as confounders were considered.

Results: A higher rate of twins (5.3% vs. 1.0%; OR with 95% CI: 5.11, 1.55-12.40) was observed in cases compared to population controls. The rate of low birthweight (18.4% vs. 5.7%; OR with 95% CI: 4.84, 2.23-9.71) was higher in cases than in population controls. Among maternal variables the higher birth order 3 or more (25.0% vs. 14.8%, p=0.04) and pregnancy order (p = 0.0005) are noteworthy, the latter is explained by the higher rate of miscarriages in previous pregnancies of case mothers.

Conclusion: The higher rate of twins and low birthweight suggest some association with the origin of SCV.