Open Access Short Research Article

Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions to Mitigate Climate Change Impacts

Rich Snow, Mary Snow

Advances in Research, Page 494-499
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10697

Weather affects almost all modes of transportation in a modern society, and likewise, transportation has an enormous impact on the weather. Transportation greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) impact climate change, which impacts transportation in return. Reduction of transportation impacts on climate change can mitigate the reverse climate change impacts on transportation. This paper examines the relationship between transportation and climate change and establishes prospective solutions to reduce transportation greenhouse gas emission impacts on climate change and mitigate the reverse climate change impacts on transportation.


Open Access Short Research Article

Organizational Learning Culture in Esfahan Islamic Azad Universities

Shadi Ebrahimi Mehrabani, Maziar Shajari

Advances in Research, Page 500-508
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10341

Aims: The main purpose of the study was to find the rate of developing the organizational learning culture and propose the possible ways to develop the organizational learning culture in Esfahan Islamic Azad Universities.

Study Design: Using a quantitative method, this study measured the rate of developing the organizational learning culture and then, using a qualitative method, a guideline for developing the organizational learning culture in Esfahan Islamic Azad Universities (EIAU) was proposed.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study covers Sixteen Islamic Azad universities in Esfahan, Iran, from September 2013 to February 2014.

Methodology: To measure the rate of development of organizational learning culture, this study used a quantitative research method based on Watkins and Marsick research on organizational learning culture. 226 faculty members of the EIAU were interviewed via questionnaires, and finally 161 usable questionnaires went through analysis. Descriptive analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Based on the results of the quantitative section of the study, interviews with five faculty members were conducted to find guidelines that can help create the appropriate context for developing the organizational learning culture in EIAU.

Results: Findings showed that the rate of the development of organizational learning culture in EIAU has been lower than average.

Conclusion: Guidelines were proposed to help create the appropriate context for developing the organizational learning culture in EIAU. These guidelines can be utilized by other universities in order to develop their learning culture more effectively.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Effects of Low Intensity 1.8 Ghz Electromagnetic Radiation on Peripheral Blood Leukocytes from Healthy Donors: A Morphometric and Morphological Study

E. Jirillo, S. Boffola, R. Stefanelli, T. Magrone, E. Vitale, M. T. Pappagallo, M. Lasalvia, G. Perna, V. Capozzi, A. Ermini, T. Ligonzo, L. Schiavulli, P. F. Biagi

Advances in Research, Page 478-493
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10168

Aims: Until now, studies related to the morphometric and morphological variations produced on peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy donors by exposure to 1.8 GHz electromagnetic radiation (EMR) yielded controversial results. The aim of this research work is to increase the statistics regarding the above mentioned variations.

Methodology: By using a reverberation chamber, which provides a controlled EMR intensity, 108 samples of human leukocytes from healthy donors were exposed to EMR of different intensities (12±4 V/m, 22±6 V/m, 42±9 V/m and 78±10 V/m) for times ranging from 5 min to 24 h. Sham exposed blood samples of the same donors were considered as controls. Using a computerized morphometric method, microscopic observations of the area size occupied by each cell were conducted; in each case the dimensional measurements were carried out on three different samples (from different donors). Besides, morphological observations were conducted staining smeared blood samples with May-Grünwald-Giemsa.

Results: Exposed and sham exposed leukocytes average size was compared using the Statistical GraphPad Prism 5.0 software. In 18% out of 108 cases examined, no effects dependent on EMR have been revealed. On the contrary, statistically significant variations in area of exposed leukocytes in comparison to non exposed cells were observed in 82% out of 108 cases examined. In 68% out of 108 cases an increase in leukocyte areas was demonstrated along with morphological variations of cells; in 14% out of 108 the cases, a decrease in leukocyte areas was observed.

Conclusions: Even though this study needs a functional evaluation of leukocytes exposed to EMR, our results suggest that 1.8 GHz EMR is able to produce increase in the leukocyte areas as well as morphological alterations.


Open Access Original Research Article

Osteoarticular Tuberculosis in Iran, 2002 to 2011

Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Mohammad Varahram, Mahdi Shams, Kimia Taghavi, Parissa Farnia, Ali Akbar Velayati

Advances in Research, Page 509-514
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/8766

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) still causes serious illnesses in millions of people throughout the world. Although pulmonary TB accounts for the majority of the cases, extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) also contributes to the burden of disease and frequently neglected in the national TB control programs. The present study was designed to investigate the frequency of osteoarticular TB (OT), one of the most common sites of EPTB, in Iran.

Material and Methods: Clinical and laboratory data of patients diagnosed with TB was retrospectively analyzed (September 2002 and December 2011). Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was performed using conventional and molecular methods. The associated risk factors were evaluated using the Chi-square test.

Results: Out of 725 patients with culture-proven EPTB, 10 (1.3%) were OT cases. According to the statistical analysis, patient characteristics (gender, age, nationality) were not significantly associated with OT (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: Our finding showed that the prevalence of OT in our study was relatively low over the last decade. However, further studies would be necessary to elucidate the exact magnitude of OT in Iran.

Open Access Original Research Article

Deterministic Mathematical Model for Dynamics of Water Borne Diseases

Nita H. Shah, Jyoti Gupta

Advances in Research, Page 515-522
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10935

In this study a mathematical model is formulated using ordinary differential equations in order to understand the population dynamics of water borne diseases. The entire population is divided into five compartments depending upon their status. These compartments are – susceptible (S), exposed (E), symptomatically infected (I), recovered but carrying the infection asymptotically (RC) and completely recovered (R). We have taken pathogen population into account as compartment (P). Here, two ways of getting infected are considered which are from person-to-person and from environment-to-person. i.e. a susceptible person can get infected either by coming directly in contact with the person having disease or by consuming contaminated food or water. A relation for the basic reproduction number is established. The analysis results show that the disease free equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable in R0<1. Sensitivity analysis tells that the most important parameters are pathogen population and rate of transmission of disease from environment-to-person. Simulation is done using MATLAB. On the basis of sensitivity analysis and numerical simulation results we concluded that we need to cure an infected individual as soon as we identify the disease so that he would not contaminate environment for long.