Open Access Short Research Article

Epiphytic Orchids of Kericho Forest, Kenya

Fanuel Kawaka, Benson Obwanga, Daniel Miyawa, Humphrey Gaya

Advances in Research, Page 462-468
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/9665

Aim: The study assessed the distribution of epiphytic orchids in selected trails of Kericho forest Kenya

Study Design: Belt transects and timed random walks.

Place and Duration of Study: Field survey was conducted in September, 2013 in Kericho forest, located in Rift Valley next to one of the main water towers in Kenya, the Mau Forest.

Methodology: Six belt transects of 10 × 30 m were established at each of the portions along the meandered trails. The belt transects were divided into intervals representing zones and each treated as a plot. The number of individual orchid species were counted and recorded. Apart from transects, timed random walks were also taken to increase the number of orchid species recorded during the survey.

Results: A total of eighteen species representing nine genera and one Habenaria sp were recorded and collected. The largest number of orchids occurred at an altitude of 2123 m above sea level with over 66% being restricted to a single location. The distribution was affected by logging, charcoal burning, conversion of forest land for agricultural use and quarrying for road construction.

Conclusion: Conservation strategies should therefore focus on minimizing loss and fragmentation of orchid habitats particularly the destruction of the moist forest habitats, host and associated indigenous plants.


Open Access Short Research Article

A Note on “Soft Set Theory and Uni-int Decision Making”

Zhiming Zhang

Advances in Research, Page 469-477
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10508

Aims: The aim of this paper is to propose a note on “Soft set theory and uni-int decision making”.

Study Design: In this note, we point out by an example that Çagman and Enginoglu’s method is very likely to get an empty decision set.

Place and Duration of Study: In a recent paper [Çaðman, N., Enginoðlu, S., 2010. Soft set theory and uni-int decision making. European Journal of Operational Research 207, 848-855], Çaðman and Enginoðlu constructed an uni-int decision making method which selected a set of optimum elements from the alternatives.

Methodology: Furthermore, we present a new approach to soft set based decision making

Results: We give some illustrative examples.

Conclusion: Two numerical examples illustrate the practicality and effectiveness of the developed approach.


Open Access Original Research Article

High Risk Periods in Tornado Outbreaks in Central USA

Igor G. Zurbenko, Mingzeng Sun

Advances in Research, Page 426-440
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10247

This study provides numerical comparisons of tornado outbreak risks in developed synoptic system along the season and along the time of a day. Time of day yields sharply changing risk along the geographic time (solar time) adjusted to the longitude of location, which makes it equal opportunities to sun energy supply in different locations. As a result of this paper, most dangerous short time interval for each location can be provided in approaching tornado watch situation. Diurnal probability profile of tornado outbreaks in Texas from 1955 through 2012 was investigated and sharply changing diurnal risks were provided based on actual data. Of all 7,997 tornadoes in Texas, about 54% (4352 tornadoes) developed during the high risk spring season. In the spring season 55% (2,392 tornadoes) occurred during the high risk time window (geographically adjusted time 3:31PM to 8:30PM). Those patterns remain absolutely the same for neighboring states. These data assure us to make extra warnings in many practical situations of approaching dangerous front that depends on a time of event.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Phytotherapic Formulation for Allergic Rhinitis in Autistic Children

Lydia Ferrara, Arturo Armone Caruso, Daniele Naviglio, Monica Gallo

Advances in Research, Page 441-454
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/9580

Aim: In this study, the efficacy of a nasal spray based on lemon pulp extract for the treatment of allergic rhinitis in autistic subjects was evaluated by nasal cytology. The lemon pulp extract was obtained using an innovative solid-liquid extraction technology using a Naviglio Extractor or a Rapid Solid-Liquid Dynamic Extractor (RSLDE) that extracts vegetable matrices from different species by using different types of solvents. Due to the pressurising and depressurising of this technique and using water as a solvent, it is possible to extract both the hydrophilic and lipophilic substances contained in vegetables in a heterogeneous solution.

Objectives: We used a nasal spray based on a lemon pulp extract for the treatment of allergic rhinitis in autistic subjects, for whom there are legal limitations regarding the possible harmful side effects associated with the long-term use of traditional treatments, such as the use of cortisone, antihistamines, and leukotriene modifiers. Moreover, this nasal spray can be administered to very young children because it contains no alcohol.

Methodology: In this placebo-controlled study, the efficacy of the product was tested on 20 patients aged between three and eight years old (10 males and 10 females, mean age 5.5 years). Nasal cytology was performed using an exfoliative technique with a sterile swab soaked in sterile saline solution and then rubbed on the middle part of the inferior turbinate. The collected sample was May-Giemsa Grumwald stained to highlight the morphological changes in the nasal epithelium before and after the nasal spray therapy.

Results: The experimental data demonstrated that the lemon-based nasal spray has anti-inflammatory effects and is therapeutically safe as an aid in reducing the inflammatory cells observed in the nasal cytology.

Conclusion: The lemon pulp extract can be used as a nasal spray for allergic rhinitis in all autistic patients, even in children, because it contains no alcohol.


Open Access Original Research Article

Multiple Antibacterial Activities of Proteinaceous Compounds in Crude Extract from the Eastern Subterranean Termite, Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar (Blattodea: Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

Yuan Zeng, Xing Ping Hu, Xiao- Qiang Yu, Sang- Jin Suh

Advances in Research, Page 455-461
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10407

Aims: To assess the presence of antibacterial activities in Reticulitermes flavipes against a common Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis; to determine the nature of antibacterial compounds of crude extracts; and to analyze the size profile of active compounds.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology and Department of Biological Sciences in Auburn University between August 2012 and July 2013.

Methodology: The cell free crude extracts were obtained from R. flavipes workers. Five size-fractionated solutions (≥100, 30-100, 10-30, 3-10, and ≤3 kDa) were achieved by sequentially size fractionating the crude extract with MicrosepTM Advance Centrifugal Devices. Heat-stable fraction was acquired by subjecting the crude extract to heat-treatment to denature proteins. Activities of the crude extract, heat-treated extract, and size-fractionated extracts against B. subtilis were determined using the inhibition zone assay. Anti-bacterial activities were determined by the measurements of the diameters (mm) of growth inhibition zones. The significances among the seven treatments, in comparison to Ampicillin (positive control) and Tris-NaCl buffer (negative control), were determined using repeated measures ANOVA.

Results: The activity against B. subtilis was evidenced in all but the heat-treated solutions, indicating the presence of antibacterial activities, the existence of multiple active compounds in the crude extracts, and the protein nature of the active compounds. The active compounds, with the molecular sizes ranging from <3 to >100 kDa, demonstrated different levels of antibacterial activity (P = 0.017). The greatest activity was observed in the fraction of 3-10 kDa and Ampicillin, followed by the fractions of ≤3 kDa and ≥100 kDa, and the lowest in the fraction of 10-30 kDa.

Conclusion: Crude extracts from R. flavipes workers contain multiple proteins with various antibacterial activities against a common Gram-positive soil bacterium B. subtilis.