Open Access Case study

Cognitive Behavior Drama: An Innovative Intervention Model that Combines Established Psychological Methods with the Art Form of Drama to Provide Young Children on the Autism Spectrum with the Motivation and Confidence to Overcome Their Fears

Haris Karnezi, Kevin Tierney

Advances in Research, Page 393-408
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/8643

Aims: To describe and evaluate the application of an innovative approach that combines cognitive and behavioral techniques with the art-form of drama to treating childhood fears, leading the participant to an in vivo exposure to the fear stimulus.

Presentation of Case: An 11 year old boy diagnosed with Asperger syndrome, who had a long standing fear of being touched and for whom all other forms of therapy, including behavioral therapy and traditional CBT interventions had been found to be ineffective, participated in the study.  

Discussion: The results obtained in terms of the clinical outcome of this single case study are very encouraging and indicate that the Cognitive Behavior Drama Model may indeed be an effective form of therapy for certain types of complex cases, for which more traditional approaches have been unsuccessful. Follow up studies that would replicate and develop the findings of this study should be conducted to establish the efficacy of the CBD model as evidence based practice

Conclusion: Importantly, the validity of the model primarily lies in its potential to reach younger children who may not benefit from traditional CBT due to cognitive immaturity. Furthermore, the inherently enjoyable and unobtrusive nature of the dramatic plot immediately engages children in the therapeutic process providing them with the motivation to overcome their fears.


Open Access Short communication

Preparation of a Good Research Question: A Starter Kit

Rajvir Singh, Vrijesh Tripathi

Advances in Research, Page 387-392
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/9567

This article addresses key issues and aspects of writing a good research question. The article shows the way to young researchers on how to zero down on a topic and formulate a research question such that the research may be conducted in a fruitful and time bound manner. Often researchers begin haphazardly and struggle to complete their study because of flaws in research design. The article addresses these issues and proposes to guide the researchers in their attempts to frame and conduct a useful and innovative study through eight clearly identifiable steps. These include Identifying a Problem, Conceiving a Research question, Literature Review, Bringing Oneself Up-to-date, Framing the Research Question, Basic Available Study Designs, Designing the Study: The Checklist and Defining the Title.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Status of Interstitial Cells of Cajal in Fallopian Tubes with Ectopic Pregnancy

Iris Khoo, Susan Van Noorden, Mona El-Bahrawy

Advances in Research, Page 376-386
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/9709

Aims: To study the numbers and distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in fallopian tubes (FTs) with ectopic gestation in comparison to normal FTs.

Study Design: Interstitial cells of Cajal were studied in normal FTs and FTs with ectopic gestation by immunohistochemistry using anti c-kit antibody.

Place and Duration of Study: Imperial College London, Department of Histopathology, Hammersmith Hospital, London, between April 2012 and August 2012.

Methodology: In this study we investigated the numbers and distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal in 50 FTs with ectopic gestation and in normal FTs from 25 patients. Interstitial cells of Cajal were highlighted by immunohistochemistry using anti c-kit antibody.

Results: Numbers of ICCs were significantly reduced in the muscularis and lamina propria of FTs with ectopic gestation as compared to normal FTs (P value: <0.001). In FTs with ectopic gestation the numbers of ICCs were significantly reduced at the implantation site when compared to areas away from the implantation site (P value = 0.003). There was no significant change in ICC numbers or distribution with patient age.

Conclusion: There is significant decrease in numbers of ICCs in FTs with ectopic gestation, which may compromise the motility of the FTs and hence transport of the gametes and embryo to the uterine cavity, predisposing to tubal implantation and ectopic gestation.


Open Access Original Research Article

Association between Air Pollutant Emissions and Type 1 Diabetes Incidence in European Countries

Agostino Di Ciaula

Advances in Research, Page 409-425
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10071

Aims: The rise of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence throughout Europe is only partially due to genetic factors, and the possibility that it may be affected by the amount of pollutant emissions has not been checked, until now.

Methodology: T1D incidence data among children from 16 European Countries (1990-2010) were collected (literature review) and analysed according to the nationwide amount of pollutant emissions (European Environmental Agency: particulate matter<10μm, PM10; nitrogen oxides, NOx; non-methane organic volatile compounds, VOCs; sulphur oxides, SOx; ammonia) in the same Nations/time periods. Pollutants were categorized by tertiles of emissions, and odds ratio (ORs) of T1D incidence were calculated.

Results: T1D incidence increased with time in all populations, and was positively correlated with the nationwide emissions of PM10 (P=0.03), NOx (P=0.0004), VOCs (P=0.009). Countries in the high tertile of PM10, NOx and VOCs emissions had higher ORs of T1D incidence than those in the low tertile, and mean T1D incidence was greater in Countries in the high- than in those in the medium or low tertile of PM10, NOx and VOCs emissions. T1D incidence was two-folds higher if two or more pollutants coexisted in the upper tertile of emissions.

Conclusion: The burden of specific pollutants might affect the extent of T1D incidence among European children, possibly triggering the development of disease by epigenetic mechanisms in genetically susceptible individuals. Thus, T1D might be considered, at least in part, a preventable condition. Further studies pointing to deeply explore this hypothesis are needed, also considering that primary prevention policies acting through a marked abatement of pollutant emissions might strongly attenuate T1D incidence throughout Europe.


Open Access Review Article

E-Learning Innovation Theory Model and Commons Dilemma in Saudi Arabia

Abdulaziz Yahyah Naser Alrashidi, Mariam Alrashidi, Zahrah Alrashidi

Advances in Research, Page 367-375
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/9133

The foundations of government policy related to e-learning, especially to the extent they were theoretically informed and innovative, were influenced by two theories: diffusion of innovation and commons dilemma. Implementation of e-learning technology systems is still evolving in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Even though in the world at large long-distance learning has existed for some time, it is relatively new to Saudi Arabia. E-learning in Saudi Arabia addresses issues of greater population growth and the distribution of education to remote areas, including having a sufficient number of educational facilities through satellite locations. This Paper presents innovations in transmission of an alternative learning system currently under consideration and the effect on the citizens’ level of education. With regard to the theory of diffusion of innovation, the government of Saudi Arabia should have a policy-making process with criteria to determine what constitutes a higher achievement level of a student and a successful learning outcome.