Open Access Original Research Article

An Observational Study of Anxiety and Depression in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Katie Pink, Jack Boylan, Ben Hope-Gill

Advances in Research, Page 320-331
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/9740

Aims: Anxiety and depression are common in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The longitudinal relationships between mental health and disease severity, progression and symptom burden are unknown. This study aims to identify if the prevalence and severity of anxiety and depression in IPF is associated with disease severity and progression. Also, to observe whether changes in cough and breathlessness symptom severity are associated with changes in mental health.

Study Design:  Retrospective case note review.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff between November 2010 and August 2012.

Methodology: Data was collected from 37 patients with IPF from two out-patient visits 12 months apart. Data included patient demographics, lung function measurements (FVC/TLco), hospital anxiety and depression scores, Denver ILD breathlessness score and Leicester cough questionnaire.

Results: The proportion of patients with depressive symptoms increased from 24.3% at baseline to 43.6% at 12 months. Anxiety rates fell from 40.5% at baseline to 35.1%.  12 patients (32%) had severe pulmonary fibrosis and 14 patients (38%) had progressive fibrosis. Patients with severe or progressive disease were more likely to have a clinically important increase in anxiety (severe P = .02, progressive P = .008) and depression scores (severe P = .008, progressive P = .04) compared with those with mild or stable disease. An association was identified between worsening depression and increasing dyspnoea (r = .60, P = .01) and cough related quality of life (r = -.47, P = .01). Increasing anxiety was also associated with dyspnoea (r = .38, P = .05) and cough (r = -.39, P = .05).

Conclusion: Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent in IPF and are associated with severe and progressive disease. Increasing symptom burden is associated with worsening mental health.


Open Access Original Research Article

Non-lithographic Fabrication of Ni-se Heterojunction Nanowires and their Electrical Characterization

Kanchan Kumari, Vijay Kumar, Karamjeet Singh

Advances in Research, Page 332-337
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/9231

In this paper, heterojunction nanowires of Ni-Se are fabricated via template-assisted electrodeposition process. Nanowires are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometry and electrical transport studies. SEM photographs reveal the uniform and dense growth of Ni-Se nanowires. X-ray diffraction pattern shows the crystalline nature of Ni-Se nanowires. EDS spectrum shows the much higher percentage of Ni as compared to Se. A collective current-voltage characteristic of heterojunction nanowires shows the resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) like behavior with peak to valley current ratio 1.37 at room temperature.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cold Wraps on Muscle Recovery after Exercise Induced Muscle Soreness

Jerrold S. Petrofsky, Lee Berk, Gurinder Bains, Iman Akef Khowailed, Guyeon Chung, Praveen Rajaram, Michael Laymon, Haneul Lee

Advances in Research, Page 338-353
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/9723

Aims: Numerous studies have been conducted on the effects of cold on muscle soreness; however, few agree on the measureable benefits of cold after exercise.  Different studies apply different temperatures to the skin, for different lengths of time, and then differ greatly in how the effects of cold are evaluated.  The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a standardized cold wrap (0ºC) applied immediately or 24 hours after exercise.  The effect of cold applied over muscle was evaluated with both subjective and objective measures.

Study Design: longitudinal study

Place and Duration of Study:    Physical Fitness Laboratory, Department of Physical Therapy, School of Allied Health Professions, Loma Linda University (LLU), California, U.S.A. between March 2013 and May 2013.

Methodology: Three groups of 20 subjects with an age range, 20-40 years conducted leg squats in three 5 minute rounds to cause delayed onset muscle soreness; 3 minutes of rest separated the rounds.  One group had cold wraps applied immediately and a second group had cold wraps applied 24 hours after exercise. A third group was the control group. The effect of cold was measured by a visual analogue pain scale, muscle strength of the quadriceps muscles, knee range of motion, stiffness of the quadriceps, Algometer to measure quadriceps soreness, and electrical resistance of the leg.

Result: One of the most significant outcomes was a reduction in soreness in the group that had cold wraps applied immediately after exercise (p <0.01). Cold immediate helped reduce damage to the quadriceps after heavy exercise. Cold was not just cool water, but cold wrap, a form of cooling capable in a short time of reducing deep tissue temperatures.

Conclusion: These data support using cold immediately after exercise to reduce muscle damage but not hours or days after exercise.


Open Access Original Research Article

Nuclear Power Project Management Confidence with Cultural Science Thailand

Dejsingchai Wongkhamton

Advances in Research, Page 354-366
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/9465

More than 7 billion people live on Earth which involves a multidimensional activity encompassing environmental pollution, energy and climate. Energy therefore is an important part of life and is an indicator of the direction in developing countries. So the future direction of the energy in Thailand and neighboring countries in Asia were considered. More demands for every day to support all activities, implementation of cultural organization that integrated approach combining both social and technology. Currently, humans find petroleum source to expedite economy and socials, all natural energy has limited by raw material quantity and innovation technology for improve which cannot process full capacity. Issues for nuclear power plant in aspects of society cross to base on cultural implementation of development and change with perceptions towards production pursuance to align in  . Research findings include one of the major factors which affect the nuclear power plant construction in Thailand is that the education level of the people. The citizens basically do not understand the relevance of advanced technology and innovation leading to human convenience and the presence of knowledge on safety and security.





Open Access Review Article

Multi-Parametric Monitoring System of Associated Seismic Phenomenology and Unusual Animal Behaviour in Western Piedmont

Giovanna De Liso, Cristiano Fidani, Andrea Viotto

Advances in Research, Page 303-319
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/8873

Earthquakes have been seldom associated with reported non-seismic phenomena observed weeks before and after shocks. Non-seismic phenomena are characterized by unusual sounds and light emissions as well as degassing of vast areas near the epicentre with chemical alterations of shallow geosphere (aquifers, soils) and the troposphere. Many animals are sensitive to even the weakest changes in the environment, typically responding with behavioural and physiological changes. Data on animal behaviour, before the moderate and low seismic activity in Western Piedmont, started to be monitored in connection with several physical measurements related to time and the earthquake epicentre distance, evidencing the specific responses of different animals. Several instances of strange animal behaviour were observed, which could causally support the hypotheses that they were induced by the physical presence of gas, electric charges and electromagnetic waves in atmosphere. A multi-parametric monitoring system was created to verify these hypotheses.