Open Access Method Article

Rooted Phylogenetic Networks for Exploratory Data Analysis

David A. Morrison

Advances in Research, Page 145-152
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/8485

Rooted evolutionary networks have previously been used solely for representing explicit hypotheses of evolutionary history (i.e. a phylogeny). However, they also have potential for exploratory data analysis. An example is presented here that highlights this use. This involves a study of possible transmission histories of a nematode parasite among cattle farms in Sweden. The network adds considerably to the practical information that can be gleaned from a study of the transmission of the pathogen, thus emphasizing the practicality of this use of phylogenetic networks for exploratory analysis.


Open Access Method Article

Profiting from Cooked Tea Leaves Waste in Eco-Friendly Method

Ali Salim Joodi, Mohammed Nsaif Abbas

Advances in Research, Page 179-187
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/8266

Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the applicability of cooked tea leaves waste (CTLW) to the removal of phosphorus pollutant from water using different design parameters by adsorption process.

Study Design: Environmental engineering.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the department of environmental engineering, College of engineering, between March 2013 and November 2013

Methodology: The experimental adsorption unit composed from fixed bed column was conducted in order to test phosphorus removal from simulated synthetic aqueous solutions (SSAS). Effects of bed heights of the adsorbent media (cooked tea leaves waste), flow rates of (SSAS), solution pH, feed temperature and initial concentration values of (SSAS) on the phosphorus removal efficiency were investigated. 

Results: The highest percentage removal of phosphorus from (SSAS) was 97.68%. Statistical model was achieved to find a mathematical equation connecting all parameters governing the percentage removal of phosphorus. The samples of (CTLW) remaining were applied as fertilizer for tomato harvest. The results show that the tomato was bloomed and gave greater weight crop. 

Conclusion: The percentage removal of phosphorus was very sensitive to the variation of solution pH, initial concentration of (SSAS), feed temperature, feed flow rate and adsorption bed height. Finally, the use of (CTLW) is consider as eco-friendly method because in the first stage it can be used to remove of phosphorus from the water and in the second stage it can be used as a cheap fertilizer.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Effect of Oxidative Stress Generated by Cadmium (Cd) in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Fadila Khaldi, Nedjoud Grara, Amina Boulahlib, Imen Tebib, Khouloud Boukehili

Advances in Research, Page 119-128
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/8426

Inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain and induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are one of the roots of cadmium (Cd) toxicity. Our work concerns the study of the effects of a heavy metal; Cadmium (Cd) on the biochemical parameters, of microorganism bioaccumulator and bioindicators of pollution Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main results show that the presence of Cadmium affects the growth of yeast, and biochemical assays reveal an increase significant of total protein and a decrease in the rate of carbohydrates. With respect to biomarkers, we note a significant decrease in the level of GSH. The results of this study demonstrate a metabolic imbalance associated oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Dose Level of Anti-thyroid Drug Carbimazole on Thermoregulation and Blood Constituents in Male Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

Intisar H. Saeed, Abdalla M. Abdelatif, Mohamed E. Elnageeb

Advances in Research, Page 129-144
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/7802

Carbimazole (CBZ) is an anti-thyroid drug commonly used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dose level of CBZ on thermoregulation and blood constituents in mature male rabbits. Twenty animals were assigned to 4 groups (A, B, C, D) of 5 each. Group A served as control and treated animals in groups B,C,D, received daily orally CBZ doses of 10, 15 and 20 mg/animal for 3 weeks, respectively. The values of rectal temperature (Tr,), respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) decreased in treated rabbits and the mean values of HR decreased with increase in the dose level of CBZ. The packed cell volume (PCV), Hb concentration and total leukocyte count (TLC) were lower in CBZ treated rabbits. Serum levels of total protein and globulins increased and serum albumin level decreased in treated groups of rabbits. Serum urea level was lower in CBZ treated groups and there was an increase in serum urea level with increase in CBZ dose level. Serum cholesterol level was higher in treated groups and there was an increase in serum cholesterol level with increase in CBZ dose level. Plasma glucose level decreased significantly in CBZ treated groups compared with the control and the mean values decreased with increase in the dose level of CBZ. The results indicate that the responses of basic physiological parameters were almost dose dependent in the range adopted in this study.


Open Access Original Research Article

Corrosion Performance of Steel Coated with Different Duplex Systems and Exposed to Salt Spray and Continuous Immersion Tests

A. R. Di Sarli, C. I. Elsner

Advances in Research, Page 153-178
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/8473

55%Al-Zn alloy coated steel sheets pre-treated with 5% Fe (NO3)3 + 15% H3PO4 solution, coated with acrylic (AC), alkyd (AQ), vinyl (VL), solvent-based epoxy (ES) or waterborne epoxy (EA) corrosion-inhibiting primers + a barrier topcoat alkyd paint, and exposed to different media were studied. Exposure conditions included salt spray or continuous immersion in solutions containing chloride or sulphate ions. The state of the exposed samples was evaluated by visual inspections, standardized physicochemical tests and electrochemical impedance (EIS) measurements. Their results allowed inferring that: 1) under immersion conditions, the best performance was offered by the ES samples; 2) most of the painting systems performed satisfactorily during their exposure to the salt spray chamber; and 3) the correlation between them permitted to explain some problems arising in service and opened the door to extend the useful life by adjusting the painting system formulation.