Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of Lead (II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by Tricholoma terreum: Kinetics Studies

Edwin Andrew Ofudje, Ayodeji Olushola Awotula, Oluwagbemiga Alayande, Kanayo Kenneth Asogwa, Olumide David Olukanni

Advances in Research, Page 58-69
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/7240

Lead and its various compounds have the potency of causing several health problems such as blood disorder, hypertension, renal impairment, neurological damage among others. The removal of Pb (II) ions by Tricholoma terreum was performed in a batch biosorption experiments to evaluate the effects of initial concentration of adsorbate, contact time, temperature and solution pH.  Maximum biosorption efficiency was obtained to be 11.9 and 14.0 mg/g by untreated and acid-treated mushroom at initial adsorbate concentration of 70 mg/L, contact time of 5 hours, temperature of 60oC and solution pH of 2.0. The biosorption data was well fitted by the Ho’s pseudo-second-order kinetic model. FT-IR characterizations of the mushroom before and after adsorption suggest that carbonyl group, amide and aromatic double bonds probably participated in the adsorption process.


Open Access Original Research Article

Fluorescence Investigations of the Association of PEO-PBO-PEO Triblock Copolymers in the Presence of Ionic Surfactants SDS and CTAB

Zaheer Ahmad, Muhammad Siddiq, Asad Muhammad Khan, Afzal Shah

Advances in Research, Page 70-79
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/6819

The interactions of triblock copolymers (TBP), E30B10E30 and E48B10E48 with ionic surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) were investigated employing steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy (SSF). In this study pyrene was used as probe while cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) as a quencher. SSF was used for the calculation of first and third vibronic ratio (I1/I3), aggregation number, binding sites, binding constant and free energy of binding. In the presence of TBP, the I1/I3 was found more for SDS as compared to CTAB, predicting that the micro polarity of the solvent decreases in case of CTAB. The aggregation number of polymer/surfactant mixed systems was determined by SSF techniques. The suppression of the TBP association in the presence of surfactant concentration was also ensured by the same technique.


Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization of Environ Metric and Index Methods as Water Quality Assessment Tools Focusing on Heavy Metal Content of Water Around Okaba Coal Mines, Kogi state, Nigeria

E. G. Ameh, D. O. Omatola, T. D. Awulu

Advances in Research, Page 80-94
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/7418

This study became imperative given the importance of water to our lives and particularly those in the rural areas, vis-à-vis the exploitation for coal.

Dry season surface water samples were analyzed for heavy metals and major ions.

Correlation, factor and cluster analyses, anthropogenic factor (AF), heavy metal pollution (HPI) and metal indices (MI) were adopted to help in assessing the degree of water pollution.

At P< 0.01 and P<0.05 levels, strong to moderate correlations exist. This indicates same origin for these variables. The R-mode factor suggests that factor one and two were anthropogenic while factor three was natural. The R-mode clusters revealed also that cluster two was anthropogenic and cluster one was a mixture of natural and anthropogenic sources. The Q-mode factor indicated that while some locations were directly influenced others were not. The Q-mode cluster showed that cluster one was natural, clusters two and three were anthropogenic.

The AF rank was: Cd>Zn>Ni>Fe>Pb> Cu. The HPI value of 56.21 obtained was below the critical pollution level of 100 at which the water is said to be contaminated. Metal indexing value of 460.46 obtained suggested seriously affected water.

This study has shown that heavy metal pollution of water resources around Okaba coal need to be re-evaluated in details. Control measures should be put in place for a sustainable development while preventive measures and awareness are strongly recommended.


Open Access Original Research Article

Fluorescence Spectroscopy as Method for Quality Control of Honey

Kr. Nikolova, T. Eftimov, A. Aladjadjiyan

Advances in Research, Page 95-108
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/7184

The present work aims in exploring the possibilities of fluorescent spectroscopy for quality control of honey, particularly to distinguish types of honey and to distinguish the natural honey from that with artificial additives - sweeteners.

24 samples of the most often encountered sorts of honey in Bulgaria distributed in 7 groups have been studied. The samples have been excited with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting in the interval from 375 to 450 nm. Fluorescence spectra of all investigated honey samples have a pеаk at l = 490 nm, and for some honey samples with iso sweet an additional one at l = 505 nm. The ratio I425/I375 of the peak intensities of fluorescence spectra can be used for differentiation between natural honeys (from 1.07 to 3.35) and honey with sweeteners and honeydew About (greater than 4).

The first derivatives of the fluorescence spectra of the blossom honeys and honeydew show two peaks at about 422 nm and 480 nm. However, the first derivatives for samples with sweeteners have many different maxima and smaller amplitudes in the variations but the most clearly expressed are those around 393 nm, 480 nm and 533 nm for iso sweet and 493 nm and 479 nm for glucose additions.

The obtained results show that the investigation of fluorescence spectra opens the possibility for distinguishing honey samples with added artificial sweeteners from natural ones except for dew honey.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Total Hydrocarbon Concentration in Four Fish Species of Degele Community, Nigeria and Their Dietary Intake in the Populace

E. D. Olaji, N. A. Nwogu, A. F. Yakubu, C. O. Olaji

Advances in Research, Page 109-118
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/7954

Aims: To assess concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in four common fish species of Degele community, Nigeria and estimate their dietary intake in the populace through the consumption of studied fish species.

Study Design:  Factorial design.

Place and Duration of Study: Degele, a fishing community in Sapele, Niger Delta, Nigeria between April to August, 2010.

Methodology: Four species of fish namely Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Catfish (Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus longifilis), and Liza falcipinnis were collected from River Aqurinrin by the help of local fishermen. Fish were samples were stored at -20°C until further analysis. The scales (O. niloticus) were sloughed off and muscle tissues were dissected. Gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was used for the evaluation of TPHs. Dietary intake concentration was calculated by multiplying the PAHs concentration measured in each species of fish by the per capita consumption for Nigeria.

Results: The concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbon in Clarias gariepinus ranged from non-detectable level of 0.001 to 46.7±16.7 µg/kg; wet weight.; Heterobranchus longifilis (0.001 to 42.7±17.4 µg/kg; wet weight); Oreochromis niloticus (0.001 to 1123.70±952.10 µg/kg; wet wt); Liza falcipinnis (0.001 to 29.0±1.4 µg/kg; wet wt). The highest level of aliphatic hydrocarbon concentration was obtained in Oreochromis niloticus. The less carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbon of lower molecular weight (LMW PAHs) was detected with clearly observed naphthalene and its substituents in all the studied fish species. The more carcinogenic high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (BaA, BbF, BkF, BaP,and InP) were not detected in the fish samples analysed. There was significant difference (P = 0.05) in the ΣAliphatic and ΣPAHs concentrations among the fish species. However, the levels are below EU recommended limit of 2µg/kg;wet weight for edible fish. The average intake of PAHs through fish consumption was calculated to be 0.02 – 0.94 mg/kg;body weight/day (O. niloticus), 0.02–0.12 mg/kg;body weight/day (C. gariepinus), 0.12–0.16 mg/kg;body weight/day (H. longifilis) and 0.14–0.58 mg/kg;body weight/day (L. falcipinnis). O. niloticus contributed to the highest intake.

Conclusion: The observed levels of TPH in fish species from this study indicate that River Aqurinrin in Degele community is not highly contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Therefore, Degele community is less exposed to carcinogenic health risks associated with the consumption of the studied fish. However, continuous monitoring programme should be formulated and conducted to ensure that the concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons is within the baseline levels established in the present study.