Open Access Original Research Article

Implementation of Ethernet in the OBD Port of Automobiles

Gulshan Mandhyan, Vijay Charan, G. J. Vinod Kumar, Gerardine Immaculate Mary

Advances in Research, Page 01-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/6304

Aims: To build an appended Ethernet port in automobile and display the diagnostic data on the web browser.  

Study Design: Ethernet port enables the automobiles for real time performance testing, diagnosing, data logging, vehicle monitoring, and remote diagnosing over IP.

Place and Duration of Study: Embedded Systems Lab, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, between June 2012 and July 2013.

Methodology: The numerous diagnostic data available from On Board Diagnostic (OBD) port of modern automobiles is extrapolated to promising network technologies like Ethernet.

Results: Acquired engine parameters from the OBD port of an automobile and displayed them on to an LCD, these real time engine parameter readings were transferred to the internet and accessed from the web browser.

Conclusion: The diagnostics of a car normally requires a person to take his car to an authorized service center where the mechanic uses a Scan Tool to diagnose the car which is usually time consuming. A more profound way to diagnose a car is using your laptop which is connected via Ethernet to your car. This allows you to diagnose your car at your own convenience, so that whenever the Malfunction Indicator Light of your car goes ON one can know and fix the fault as it occurs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Conjugal Transfer of Vancomycin Resistance among Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

Rehab Mahmoud Abd El-Baky, Hala Rady Ahmed, Gamal Fadl Mahmoud Gad

Advances in Research, Page 12-23
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/7142

Aims: Emergence of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) has been of great concern in clinical settings. Our study aimed to detect vancomycin resistance and the possibility of its conjugal transfer among clinical isolates of S. aureus.

Study Design: Medical microbiology.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the department of microbiology, Faculty of pharmacy, between October 2011 and January 2013.

Methodology: Two hundreds and seven samples were collected from different types of infections and examined for Staphylococcus aureus using standard bacteriological procedures, Antimicrobial susceptibility testing against vancomycin and some antimicrobials was done by agar dilution method, resistance to methicillin was determined by disc diffusion test using cefoxitin (30µg), Vancomycin resistance gene transfer was tested by broth matting procedure and confirmed by plasmid and DNA product analysis.

Results: Sixty-three samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus. All isolates were resistant to penicillin while the lowest resistance was to amikacin and vancomycin. One isolate was VRSA (MIC ≥ 16 µg/ml and positive for vanA gene 1032bp) while 5 isolates were VISA. All VRSA and VISA isolates were MRSA and showed a high resistance to other examined antibiotics. Vancomycin resistance was plasmid mediated and successfully transferred from VRSA donor to a vancomycin sensitive recipient isolate (MIC 2 µg/ml). The MIC of vancomycin for the transconjugant strain was 32 µg/ml. PCR product analysis for the transconjugate was positive for vanA gene.

Conclusion: Low incidence of vancomycin resistance, All VRSA and VISA were methicillin resistant, and mostly isolated from skin infections. Also, vancomycin resistance was plasmid mediated and successfully transferred to susceptible strains which is alarming. Skin colonization by VRSA strains harboring plasmid carrying resistance genes may result in widespread of these strains that could lead to outbreaks of staphylococcal diseases in both hospital and community.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cold Storage on the Concentrations of some Nutrients, Anti-nutrients and Toxic Substances in the Leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf)

Amanabo Musa, Emmanuel O. Ogbadoyi

Advances in Research, Page 24-39
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/6123

Aims: In order to maintain the freshness and quality of leafy vegetables after harvesting during glut, vegetables are usually stored in cold condition either in the freezer or refrigerator for certain period as this storage condition is believed to prevent some of the biochemical reactions responsible for food spoilage. This research was carried out to examine the effect of cold storage duration in the freezer at -4ºC on the concentrations of some toxic substances (cyanide, nitrate soluble and total oxalates) and nutrients (β-carotene, vitamin C, Fe, Cu, Mg, Na and K) in the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina.

Methodology: Leaves of Vernonia amygdalina were washed with distilled water and stored in deep freezer at -4ºC for four-weeks. The concentrations of nutrients, antinutrients and toxic substances were determined at weekly intervals.

Results: The results showed that the concentrations of cyanide, soluble and total oxalates, vitamin C and β-carotene in the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the first three weeks of freezing. Significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the β-carotene concentration was observed in the fourth week of cold storage. The nitrate, Cu and Mg contents in the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina decreased significantly (p < 0.05) during two weeks of freezing and insignificantly (P>0.05) in the third and fourth weeks of cold storage. While freezing has no significant effect on Na content in the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina during the storage period, the concentrations of Fe and K in the vegetable decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the third week of freezing.

Conclusion: A maximum of two weeks of cold storage condition in freezer at -4oC significantly reduced the concentrations of antinutrients and toxic substances in the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina to tolerable levels without compromising the nutritional benefit in the vegetable. 


Open Access Original Research Article

Sensory Attributes and Consumer Preference of Precooked Vacuum-packaged Yam from Two Varieties of Ghanaian Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) in the Accra Metropolitan Area

Charles Tortoe, Stephen Nketia, Margaret Owusu, Papa Toah Akonor, Solomon Dowuona, Emmanuel Otoo

Advances in Research, Page 40-51
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/7502

Aims: The need to preserve and improve availability of yam by processing into more stable and convenient forms has become increasingly attractive because of the high postharvest losses of yams in Ghana.

Study Design: In this study the sensory attributes and consumer preference of precooked vacuum-packaged sliced yams from two white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) varieties were assessed.

Place and Duration of Study: CSIR-Food Research Institute-Food Processing and Engineering Division, Accra, Ghana, between March 2012 and June 2013.

Methodology: Thirteen trained panelists who regularly patronize boiled yam and have previous experience in sensory evaluation were made to assess boiled yam slices from the two white yam varieties based on color, aroma, taste, texture and overall acceptability.  One hundred and ninety one consumers of yam from diverse socio-economic backgrounds assessed the precooked vacuum-packaged yam from the two varieties for their preference. The consumer preference was conducted in a designated area at two major restaurants in Accra. Consumers were required to rate the acceptability of the yam samples on a 7-point Hedonic scale from 1-dislike extremely to 7-like extremely.

Results: Sensory evaluation revealed significant differences (p>0.05) in taste and color between boiled slices from pona and dente yam varieties, although the texture, aroma and overall acceptability did not differ significantly (p<0.05).  The highest scores for all five attributes studied were recorded for pona. Taste and texture of the precooked vacuum-packaged sliced yams for both varieties had a positive influence on overall acceptability. Consumer preference showed a significantly higher preference (6.3) for yam slices from pona compared to dente (5.7) because of its superior taste and texture.

Conclusion: Sensory evaluation rated taste, colour, texture, aroma and overall acceptability of pona cultivar as higher than dente cultivar. Although the consumers’ acceptability scores for pona cultivar was higher than dente cultivar it was not influenced by consumers’ demographic status.  Boiled yam precooked vacuum-packaged of pona cultivar was most preferred to dente cultivar due to its good taste and superior texture.


Open Access Original Research Article

Vascular Segmentation of Cerebral AVM

Y. Kiran Kumar, Shashi B. Mehta, Manjunath Ramachandra

Advances in Research, Page 52-57
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/7044

Aim: A Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins, where arteries shunt directly into veins with no intervening capillary bed which causes high pressure and hemorrhage risk. The success of treatment by embolization in interventional Neuroradiolgy is highly dependent on the accuracy of the vessels


Place and Duration of Study: Philips electronics India Ltd.

Methodology: Wavelet based segmentation

Design:  In this paper, we have done segmentation of feeding arteries and NIDUS using 3DRA for cerebral patients, using various preprocessing steps of image and used wavelet for reconstruction and segmentation of the image.

Conclusion: The doctors can analyze and decide the mode of clinical diagnosis/ treatment based on our segmentation results.