Open Access Original Research Article

Optimized Hexagonal Photonic Crystal Fibre Sensor for Glucose Sensing

Md. Bellal Hossain, Etu Podder, Apurba Adhikary, Abdullah- Al-Mamun

Advances in Research, Volume 13, Issue 3, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/38972

Aims: This paper presents an optimised hexagonal photonic crystal fibre (PCF) geometry for investigation of relative sensitivities for 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% of glucose solution in water at a wavelength ranging from 1200 nm to 1600 nm. This work also shows an active area and confinement loss variation of the optimised hexagonal PCF when the core is filled with different concentrations of glucose solution.

Study Design:  Here, optimised hexagonal photonic crystal fiber (PCF) geometry is chosen where COMSOL Multiphysics software is used for simulation.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering at Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh and Study duration was between March 2017 and December 2017.

Methodology: At first, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% of glucose solution in water with different refractive indexes are inserted through the core of the modified Hexagonal PCF. Then, the simulation is done by varying wavelength from 1200 nm to 1600 nm. Here, Comsol Multiphysics is used for simulation and MATLAB is used to plot the desired optical properties of the proposed PCF geometry.

Results: From this work, the relative sensitivities are obtained approximately 28.6, 33.09, 36.97, 40.37, 44.81 in percentage at wavelength 1200 nm and 35.27, 37.63, 41.15, 44.98, 47.87 in percentage at wavelength 1600 nm for 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% of glucose solution in water respectively. Again, the effective areas are found approximately 16.306 μm2, 17.285 μm2, 18.207 μm2, 19.209 μm2, 19.729 μm2 at wavelength 1200 nm and 18.823 μm2, 19.495 μm2, 20.21 μm2, 20.739 μm2, 20.954 μm2 at wavelength 1600 nm for 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% of glucose solution in water respectively. The confinement losses are approximately 2.1×10-8 dB/Km, 0.78×10-8 dB/Km, 0.15×10-8 dB/Km for 20%, 30%, and 40% of glucose solution in water respectively at wavelength 1500 nm but for 50% and 60% of glucose solution, the confinement loss is approximately zero from 1200 nm to 1600 nm.

Conclusion: High sensitive Glucose sensor is achieved with optimised Hexagonal PCF structure which was the main target of this research.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Salmonella Serotypes Isolated from Visceral Organs of Post-mortem Chickens during Outbreaks in South-western Nigeria

F. M. Mshelbwala, N. D. G. Ibrahim, S. N. A. Saidu, A. A. Azeez, A. K. F. Kadiri, P. A. Akinduti, M. Agbaje, C. N. Kwanashie

Advances in Research, Volume 13, Issue 3, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/38462

Aim: Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of some motile Salmonella serotypes isolated from outbreaks of salmonellosis in commercial and backyard poultry farms were investigated in this study, to determine the therapeutic effectiveness of some common antimicrobial drugs used in Veterinary and Medical practices.

Place and Duration of the Study: Samples were collected from Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States, Nigeria. Bacterial culture and isolation; and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were carried out in the Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. Confirmation of Salmonella isolates using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done at the Biotechnology Laboratory, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom. Serotyping was carried out at the World Organization for Animal Health/OIE, Italian Reference Laboratory for Salmonella, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Podava, Italy. The work was carried out over a period of 1 year between January and December, 2013.

Methodology: Tissue samples of the lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, proventriculus, small intestine, caecum and bile samples caecum from chickens submitted for postmortem examinations during outbreaks of salmonellosis were collected for bacterial isolation and identification. Confirmed Salmonella isolates were serotyped using the White-Kauffmann-Le Minor Scheme. The susceptibility profiles of the isolates were determined by the disc-diffusion method. 

Results: The Salmonella serotypes were Salmonella Zega, S. Kentucky, S. Herston, S. Nima, S. Telelkebir, S. Colindale and S. Tshiongwe. All the seven Salmonella serotypes were 100% sensitive to Gentamycin, Ciprofloxacin, Enrolfloxacin, Ofloxacin, and Pefloxacin, but were 100% resistant to Erythromycin, Co-trimoxazol, Penicillin, and Ampicillin. They showed intermediate sensitivity to Cephalexin, Amoxycillin, Augumentin, Chloramphenicol, Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime, Nolidixic acid, Oxacillin, Anicillin and Nitrofurontoin.

Conclusion: Salmonella serotypes identified in this study showed sensitivity to some antibiotics but were multidrug resistant (MDR) to various types used in both Veterinary and Medical practices, posing a serious therapeutic and public health challenges. All 7 Salmonella serotypes were resistant to 4 antibiotics. Also, all were MDR. We recommend for Polymerase chain reaction as a fast and accurate method for the detection of Salmonella species, and antibiotics testing before treatment in cases of outbreaks of avian salmonellosis.


Open Access Original Research Article

Design of Sewage Treatment Plant for CBN Housing Estate Trans-Ekulu Enugu Nigeria

Okolie Paul Chukwulozie, Oluwadare Benjamin Segun, Chukwuneke Jeremiah Lekwuwa, Ugwuegbu Duke Chiagoro

Advances in Research, Volume 13, Issue 3, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/22618

CBN quarters Trans-Ekulu, Enugu has been upgraded to Housing Estate status, the steady increment in the Estate population results to the increase in domestic sewage generation. Presently there is no sewage treatment plant, so, it is required to construct a sewage treatment system with sufficient capacity to treat the increased sewage generation. The project deals with the design of the sewage treatment plant and its major units such as inlet chamber, grit chamber, comminutor, primary settling tank, trickling filter, secondary sedimentation tank, sludge digester and sludge drying bed for the Housing Estate. It also involves the sizing of each components of the treatment plant. The project takes into cognizance the housing estate size in land mass, number of housing units, residents’ population and finally it is designed to serve the housing estate for the next 30 years as the residents’ population increases. CBN Housing Estate Enugu is a residential estate and is at a distance of 7 km North East of 82 DIV. Enugu and 5 km south of School of Dentistry, Enugu. With regards to the housing Estate, almost the entire area and environment are plain and the general slope is from West to East. The estate is located at the latitude of N06° 28.669’ (N06.48°) and longitude of E 007° 29.808’ (N007.50°). The soil of the area is gravel and a large proportion of sandy-gravel. All the aspects of the Estate’s climate, and topography, its population growth rate are will all considered while designing the project. By the execution of the project, the entire sewage of the Housing Estate can be treated effectively and efficiently.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Maize (Zea mays) with Soybean (Glycine max) and Moringa (Moringa oleifera) on Blood Biochemical Profile of Albino Rats

B. A. Ibrahim, A. Y. Kabiru, M. B. Busari, A. R. Agboola, S. James

Advances in Research, Volume 13, Issue 3, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/37181

Effects of supplementation of maize with soybean and Moringa leaf on selected blood parameters in albino rats were investigated. Albino rats weighing 130 – 150 g were grouped into six. Group 1 was fed with normal chow, groups 2 and 3 were fed with maize supplemented with soybeans in ratios 4:1 and 3:2, groups 4 and 5 were fed with maize supplemented with Moringa in ratios 4:1 and 9:1, while, group 6 was fed with maize. At the end of one month study group 4 had the highest reduction in blood glucose and higher increase in albumin by 11.7% and 9.49%. There was decrease in cholesterol in groups 2 and 4. Albino rats fed with Moringa supplementations had the highest HDL increment compared to other groups. All the groups had reduced LDL levels. This study shows that Moringa and soybean supplementation have significant effect on blood glucose, cholesterol, HDL and LDL.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemically Modified Nanocellulose from Rice Husk: Synthesis and Characterisation

Mandeep Kaur, Santosh Kumari, Praveen Sharma

Advances in Research, Volume 13, Issue 3, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/38934

The synthesis of Cellulose nanocrystals by utilizing rice husk an agricultural waste material deserves to be an advanced approach. The present study evaluates the use of rice husk as an excellent source of cellulose to procure cellulose nanocrystals. A chemo-mechanical method was employed. Chemical processes involved alkali treatment, bleaching treatment and acid hydrolysis. Mechanical processes involved ultrasonication, cryocrushing and magnetic stirring. Cellulose nanocrystals have been characterised by scanning electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transformed infrared spectra. The thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. The result showed that synthesised cellulose nanocrystals were of the diameter 76.77nm.