Open Access Short Research Article

En Attendant Centiloid

Victor L. Villemagne, Vincent Doré, Paul Yates, Belinda Brown, Rachel Mulligan, Pierrick Bourgeat, Robyn Veljanoski, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Kevin Ong, Alan Rembach, Robert Williams, Samantha C. Burnham, Simon M. Laws, Olivier Salvado, Kevin Taddei, S. Lance Macaulay, Ralph N. Martins, David Ames, Colin L. Masters, Christopher C. Rowe

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 723-729
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/11599

Aims: Test the robustness of a linear regression transformation of semiquantitative values from different Aβ tracers into a single continuous scale.

Study Design: Retrospective analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: PET imaging data acquired in Melbourne and Perth, Australia, between August 2006 and May 2014.

Methodology: Aβ imaging in 633 participants was performed with four different radiotracers: flutemetamol (n=267), florbetapir (n=195), florbetaben (n=126) and NAV4694 (n=45). SUVR were generated with the methods recommended for each tracer, and classified as high (Aβ+) or low (Aβ-) based on their respective thresholds. Linear regression transformation based on reported head-to-head comparisons of each tracer with PiB was applied to each tracer result.  Each tracer native classification was compared with the classification derived from the transformed data into PiB-like SUVR units (or BeCKeT: Before the Centiloid Kernel Transformation) using 1.50 as a cut-off.

Results: Misclassification after transformation to PiB-like SUVR compared to native classification was extremely low with only 3/267 (1.1%) of flutemetamol, 1/195 (0.5%) of florbetapir, 1/45 (2.2%) of NAV4694, and 1/126 (0.8%) of florbetaben cases assigned into the wrong category. When misclassification occurred (<1% of all cases) it was restricted to an extremely narrow margin (±0.02 BeCKeT) around the 1.50 BeCKeT threshold. Conclusion: While a definitive transformation into centesimal units is being established, application of linear regression transformations provide an interim, albeit robust, way of converting results from different Aβ imaging tracers into more familiar PiB-like SUVR units.


Open Access Short Research Article

Reliability Analysis of Steel Structures under Buckling Load in Second-order Theory

Hamed Abshari, M. Reza Emami Azadi, Madjid Sadegh Azar

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 950-966
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/11358

There are various theoretical methods and procedures to evaluate instability of members in steel frames, in which effects of overall buckling and also geometrical nonlinearity are considered. In the first part, aims are to compare these conventional methods and investigate the potential of the software to applying the effects in analysis. For this reason, obtained buckling loads of simple frames from conventional methods are compared with results of SAP2000. In order to consider the actual design issues and generalize the problem, buckling load of multi-storey steel frames with multiple openings (3 and 5 floors, 3 openings) is calculated. Also, uncertainties that exist in loading and modeling of structures such as geometrical imperfection, yield stress, and modulus of elasticity in buckling load of 2D framed steel structures have been studied. By performing these uncertainties to each reliability analysis procedures (first-order, second-order, and simulation methods of reliability), a reliability index from each procedure is determined. These values are studied and compared.


Open Access Short Research Article

Employees’ Altruism and Organisational Adaptation in Nigeria

Jaja Seth Accra, Gabriel Justin Mgbechi Odinioha

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 1054-1064
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/12430

This study empirically sought to establish the pattern of relationship between employees’ altruism and organisational adaptation in Nigeria. As a cross sectional survey, the instrument for data collection was the questionnaire which top executives of the organisations responded to. Data collected were presented and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The 17.0 version of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to perform a Spearman Rank Order Coefficient Correlation and the result revealed that altruism is significantly and positively associated to organisational adaptation. The study concluded that the exhibition of altruism among employees of Nigeria domestic aviation companies resulted in sharing of knowledge and consequently made the organisations adaptive; and recommended among others that (1) Leaders and managers of Nigeria domestic airline companies and by extension, all other Nigeria organisations should apply motivation to induce  employees to exhibit altruistic behaviors (2) Managers should enshrine as part of their selection practices; the potentials to exhibit altruistic behaviors as constituent sub- condition for hiring.


Open Access Commentary

About Some Topical Ideas and Trends in Foreign Language Education of Children

Ilka Birova

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 1026-1030
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10873

This article presents some topical ideas about effectiveness of foreign language education of little children and some trends in this sphere. The special attention is paid on bilingual education of children at preschool and elementary school age. The author underlines the strategic importance of early foreign language education connected with the contemporary principle of lifelong learning education.


Open Access Short communication

Investigating Lunar Phases Impact on Natural Disasters over India

Jyotsna Singh, Bhishma Tyagi

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 926-934
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/6388

The effect of lunar phases on natural disasters has been discussed from time to time. In the present work we have made an attempt to investigate the impact of lunar phases on the natural disasters viz. cyclone, earthquake, slides and floods. We have observed the increasing trend in the number of disasters over the last 100 years. The seasonal analysis of the above mentioned four disasters have shown their maximum occurrence in the monsoon season. Among all the four disasters, number of occurrences of the flood was highest in past years. It has been observed that during the first and last quarter we had more natural disasters compared to the new moon and full moon. However the Student t-test confirmed that statistically there is no difference between first quarter and last quarter and new moon and full moon phases at 0.05 level of significance.


Open Access Minireview Article

Vaccine: Public Health and Prevention in Times of Financial Austerity

V. John Michael Quinn, Tomas Zeleny, Vladimir Bencko

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 918-925
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10279

This narrative review paper briefly and anecdotally discusses the current reality and future requirements across nations to invest in public health prevention strategies to ensure global health. Many novel public health campaigns have been underway and much of the research literature to date have explored a myriad of modalities to promote global health in the context of human and health security. We propose that a back-to-basics approach may benefit states and health policy. In light of the long emergency that is financial austerity for many nation-states with regional conflict displacing millions, prevention may be the best option for public health institutions to maximize best medical outcomes for populations. Comment is also made about disease prevention and the exploding non-communicable disease wave hitting both the developed and developing world. This review paper makes the case for prevention of disease and emphasizes the benefits of vaccination.


Open Access Minireview Article

Ghana in the Square Kilometre Array

Proven- Adzri Emmanuel, Nana Ama Browne Klutse, Dickson Adomako, Prosper Kofi Ashilevi, Eric Aggrey

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 1040-1045
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/12228

Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute, in collaboration with Square Kilometre Array (SKA) -South Africa, is currently converting a redundant 32-metre telecommunications antenna at Kutunse, Ghana into a radio telescope. The aim is to add this antenna to the Africa Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Network (AVN), which South Africa’s Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory is currently the only one. This paper gives an introduction about the Square Kilometer Array, and how a redundant 32-metre telecommunication antenna at Kutunse, Ghana will be converted into a radio telescope and Ghana will be put on the spotlight in radio astronomy science and greatly impact science education in Ghana. The SKA telescopes will be used to study Very Long Baseline Interferometry, radiometry, maser studies, pulsar timing, and supernova. It will also be capable of studying quasars, gamma- ray flares, transient radio source behavior, interacting binary stars, and development of celestial and terrestrial reference frames. Singularly, the dishes are also capable of single dish experiments like spectroscopy, pulsars and radiometry and gain insight into the evolution of the universe.


Open Access Original Research Article

Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphic Analysis of Well ‘K-2’, Deep Offshore Niger Delta, Nigeria

Sanuade Oluseun Adetola

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 696-711
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/11364

A study on the calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy has been carried out on sequences within the interval 1640m-1980m of well ‘K-2’ located in the deep offshore of Niger Delta, Nigeria.

Lithologic description of the samples was done using a stereo-binocular microscope. Thirty-four slides of samples were prepared and studied for their calcareous nannofossil contents using Olympus Light Microscope in both plane-polarized and cross-polarized light.

The lithostratigraphic descriptions on the samples showed the abundance of shale and mudstone/siltstone with minor amount of thin intercalated units of sand bed. Seventeen calcareous nannofossil species were identified and used to predict the biostratigraphic deductions such as zonation, dating and a tentative sequence stratigraphic framework. With the aid of a standard zonation schemes, two major nannofossil zones (NN 19 and NN 18) were identified. These zones belongs to Pleistocene and Pliocene ages respectively. Two major zones of Gephyrocapsa carribeanica and Gephyroca psaparallela were identified for the studied well on the basis of the index taxa and fossil assemblage recorded.  The insufficient amount of nannofossils in the lower part of the well precluded a definite zonation and made the zone to be indeterminable. One Condensed Section believed to be associated with 2.0Ma Maximum Flooding Surfaces was recognized.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spectrum Auctions in Turkey: Recent Developments and a Critical Assessment

Muhterem Col, Lutfu Sagbansua

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 712-722
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/11371

This paper aims to provide a snapshot of the Turkish mobile market and evaluation of the auction process in mobile market. Turkey with a mobile coverage rate of 99.65% provided by more than 90 thousand base station sites constitutes a good example for mobile market in Europe. This rate is among the best coverage rates throughout Europe. Examples from other countries are also presented as a way of comparison and reaching conclusions for policy makers and practitioners. The use of auctions to enhance allocative efficiency of a scarce resource such as telecom spectrum is vital. However, the desired efficiencies shall not be realized unless the auction design and spectrum management policies are both optimal. Thus, a model of spectrum auctions is developed for the purpose of this study as a contribution to the literature. The model is based both on earlier experiences of Information and Communication Technologies Agency of Turkey and conclusions drawn from the literature. The model suggests a straightforward roadmap and flowchart for the policy makers.


Open Access Original Research Article

Characteristics of Resistivity and Self-Potential Anomalies over Agbani Sandstone, Enugu State, Southeastern Nigeria

Austin C. Okonkwo, Benard I. Odoh

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 730-739
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/8510

The characteristics of the Resistivity and Self-Potential (SP) anomalies over Agbani Sandstone have been carefully and painstakingly carried out. The study was aimed at investigating the possible rock types and their mineralogical potentials. Data was acquired using the high resolution versatile ABEM SAS 4000 resistivity meter, employing the profiling method. Datasets were analyzed using the Excel toolkits. Interpretation was basically qualitative. Based on the resistivity interpretation, Agbani Sandstone is laterally limited in extent while the mineralization potential is high as a result of the high negative SP anomalies. The negative SP values range is -200mV to -500mV. This is practically indicative of a sulphide orebodies – possibly pyrite (FeS2). Comparative profile plots show that the observed zones of sulphide orebodies are within the gradational contact of Agbani Sandstone with Awgu Shale. Stream sediment analysis and rock geochemical study are recommended. However, the study has shown that contact zones of sandstone deposits are possibly ore enrichment zones.


Open Access Original Research Article

Feeding Habits of the African Carp Labeobarbus batesii (Pisces: Cyprinidae) from the Mbô Floodplain Rivers

Claudine Tekounegning Tiogué, Minette Tabi Eyango Tomedi, David Nguenga, Guegang Tekou, Joseph Tchoumboué

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 757-765
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/11675

Aims: The African cyprinids were not yet used in aquaculture. For domestication and preservation of the African carp Labeobarbus batesii, aspects of feeding habits  in term of its aquaculture potential proves necessary.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Applied Ichthyology and Hydrobiology, Department of Animal Productions, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, University of Dschang, Cameroon, from May 2008 to October 2009.

Methodology: 318 fish samples (17 cm to 93.70 cm, means 25.47±4.47 cm of total length; 40 g to 6000 g, means 187.41±125.69 g for total weight) were collected monthly from artisanal fishermen in the Mbô Floodplain Rivers (MF). After fish’s dissection, guts were immediately removed and dissected, empty and replete guts were counted. Food items were identified to lowest possible taxon. They were counted under a stereoscopic binocular microscope in petri dishes. The microscopic food organisms were examined under a light microscope and the identified organisms were counted using Thoma lam. Three indices were used for gut contents analysis: Gut vacuity index, Frequency of occurrence and Percentage of abundance. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the generalized linear model at P = 0.05 and P = 0.001 probability level were used.

Results: Gut vacuity index was very low (11.95 %), and varied between seasons, zones, sexes and maturity state. Seven taxonomic groups were observed in L. batesii guts: plant foods (macrophyta and algae) are predominant both in frequency and abundance in the diet than animal foods (insects, Crustaceans, Nematoda, Protozoa and other invertebrates).

Conclusion: Labeobarbus batesii consumes many varieties of animal and plant organisms. This species is benthopelagic, detritivorous and omnivorous with a preference for plant material.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Small Scale Farmers’ Educational Level, Experience, Age and Effects on Performance of Greenhouse Technology Production of High Value Horticultural Crops in Gusii Highlands, Kenya

P. Omoro, A. A. Shitandi, S. N. Maobe, R. B. Ogata

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 766-781
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/11167

Aims: The study aimed to evaluate how farmers’ education level, experience and age affect performance of the technology.

Study Design: The research design employed in the study is a survey research design. Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Department of Medicine (Medical Unit IV) and Department of Radiology, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Services Hospital Lahore, between June 2009 and July 2010.

Methodology: A purposive and multi-stage sampling technique was used to sample 276 respondents guided by target population of 1,000 and the concentration of farmers practicing the technology in the study area. Questionnaires and key informant interviews were used to collect data. Data was then computer analysed using Microsoft excel, linear regression analysis and SPSS software.

Results: The study major finding is that greenhouse tomato production in small scale farms in Gusii Highlands is low ranging between 2,484.67kg and 6,558.50kg compared to the potential of 7,500kg and a mean deviation of -3609.76kg. It was evident that that education level and experience had a significant effect on performance by 88.90 kg and 700.39 kg respectively (t- value 2.867 and sign level 0.005) and (t- value 9.020 and sign level 0.000). Age had an insignificant effect on performance with one year age increase resulting to increased performance by 9.74kg (t- value 1.466 and sign level 0.144).

Conclusion: The study concluded is that there is need to invest more in education of farmers to enhance greenhouse technology performance.


Open Access Original Research Article

TrkA Pathway(s) are Involves in the Regulation of TRPM2 and TRPM7 Expression in the Substantia Nigra of the Parkinson’s Disease Rat Model Induced by 6-Hydroxydopamine

Yong- peng Yu, An- mu Xie, Xiao- han Yang

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 782-796
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10543

Recently, it was demonstrated that the transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) and melastatin 7 (TRPM7) played a key role in ROS-induced neuronal death. Meanwhile, nerve growth factor (NGF), through activating tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) pathway, is known to have survival and differentiation effects on neuronal cells. To mediate these actions, NGF binds to the high affinity neurotrophin receptor TrkA to trigger the intracellular signaling cascades. Two kinases whose activities mediate these processes are phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K) and ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In this study, the Parkinson’s disease rat model induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was employed. TRPM7 and TRPM2 were found residing on dopaminergic neuronal body and process, and the effect of TrkA was concurrently observed on TRPM2 and TRPM7 in the cell body by immunohistochemistry staining. There was an increasing up-regulation of TRPM7 and TRPM2 expressions in the substantia nigra (SN) of the Parkinson’s disease (PD) rat model at one week after 6-OHDA injection. The levels of TRPM2 and TRPM7 in the PD group were reversed by intracerebroventricular injection of NGF (500ng) 30 min before 6-OHDA injection, and the effect of NGF was completely abolished by co-injection of TrkA inhibitor K252a. In addition, when Wortmannin and U0126 were introduced to block PI-3K and MAPK pathways respectively, only PI-3K inhibitor wortmannin substantially abolished NGF effects. These results suggest that TrkA, after being activated by NGF, can inhibit up-regulation of TRPM2 and TRPM7 expressions in the SN neurons injured by 6-OHDA through PI-3K signal pathway. These findings open a new way for further investigation of the potential roles of TRPM2, TRPM7 and NGF in the pathogenesis of PD.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Ciconiiformes in Controlling Pests in Rice Paddies of Kibimba, Eastern Uganda

Sarah Nachuha, Imran Ejotre, Polycarp M. Mwima

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 797-806
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/11845

Aim: The study examined the diversity and abundance of Ciconiiforme birds and their potential role in provision of environmental services to control potential pests in rice paddies.

Study Design: A cross sectional study design was used

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted at Kibimba rice scheme, eastern Uganda, from October 2013 to April 2014.

Methodology: A combination of total counts, focal bird observations and a social economic survey was used. Waterbird counts were made in a total of 71 field plots, of which 18 were harvested fields, 20 ploughed fields, 23 with rice in the early stages of growth (Phase 1) and 10 with mature rice (Phase 2). Focal bird observations were conducted in harvested and ploughed flooded rice fields for ease of visibility and included watching individual birds of the Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea) (9), Black-headed Heron (Ardea melanocephala) (59) and the Open-billed Stork (Anastomus lamelligerus) (86) for a maximum of 15 minutes each and documenting the prey they took.

Results: There was a significant difference in the abundance of species recorded on the different rice stages (c3 = 19.104, P =.0001). Ploughed fields supported the highest number of waterbird species (41) and individuals (28.79±3.238) while harvested fields supported the least (7.15±0.974). Focal observations showed that the Open-billed Stork fed mostly on snails, the Black-headed Heron fed on snakes, rats and frogs while the Grey Heron fed on rats. Farmers indicated that rats, snails and birds were the primary pests of their rice crop and suggested that birds such as herons and Open-billed storks can be used to control rats and snails respectively, while the bird pests are mainly controlled through poisoning.

Conclusion: These results indicate that waterbirds can play an invaluable environmental service of feeding on potential rice pests therefore should be protected.


Open Access Original Research Article

Possible Sonochemical Synthesis of Nanosized Particles Mixed Ligand Metal Coordination Polymers Derived from 1,3-Di(4-pyridyl)propane and Benzimidazole

Aref A. M. Aly, Maged S. Al-Fakeh, Mahmoud A. Ghandour, Bahaa M. Abu-Zied

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 807-816
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10142

Nanosized mixed ligand Mn(II), Co(II), Cu(ІІ), Cd(II) and Pb(ІІ) coordination polymers derived from 1,3-di (4-pyridyl) propane (DPP) and benzimidazole (BIMZ) were synthesized. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and electronic spectral studies. The thermogravimetry (TG), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to study the thermal decomposition steps. The scanning electron microscope SEM photographs and particle size calculations from the powder XRD data indicate the nano-sized nature of three compounds prepared under ultrasonic irradiation (average size 20-34nm).


Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of a Teacher Mentoring Programme in Enhancing Pre-service Chemistry Teachers’ Attitude towards the Teaching Profession

Emmanuel E. Achor, Zipporah P. Duguryil

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 817-832
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/12094

Aims: This study investigated the effectiveness of a teacher mentoring programme in enhancing pre-service teacher’s attitude towards the teaching profession.

Study Design: The study was a pretest, post test quasi experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place in Plateau State of Nigeria and lasted for 12 weeks (that is, between April and June 2012).

Methodology: The instruments used for the study were Teacher Mentoring Guide (TMG) and Pre-service Chemistry Teachers’ Attitude Scale (PCTAS). The reliability for PCTAS was 0.82 using Cronbach’s Alpha. A purposive sample of 72 Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) final year chemistry teachers was used in Experimental group by serving teachers using a TMG. 

Result: PCTAS was used to generate data which were analysed using mean, standard deviation and ANCOVA. It was found that there was a significant difference between the mean attitude score of pre-service chemistry teachers exposed to mentoring (experimental) and those that were not (F1, 71 = 17.74, p< 0.05). Conversely, there were no significant differences between the mean attitude score of male and female as well as age category of 18-21 and 22 and above years’ pre-service chemistry teachers exposed to mentoring (F1, 35 = 0.11, p> 0.05 and F1, 35 = 1.29, p > 0.05 respectively).

Conclusion: Training of pre-service chemistry teachers in teacher training institutions using a structured guide such as TMG facilitated development of positive attitude by pre-service teachers. Gender was not a factor in the extent of positive attitude developed by pre-service teachers mentored using TMG.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Diseased Top Predators in Food Chains

Simone Campion, Rita Cena, Alessandro Gallo, Ezio Venturino

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 833-845
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/11349

Ecoepidemiology studies spreading diseases among interacting populations. Food webs occur everywhere in nature. In this paper we investigate a dynamical system for an epidemic affecting the top predators in a three-trophic level food chain. The feasible model equilibria are identified and their stability is assessed, showing transcritical bifurcations relating some of them, and analytically establishing the impossibility of Hopf bifurcations, with the exception for the coexistence equilibrium. Simulations reveal indeed that all subpopulations can thrive together by sustained periodic oscillations. This investigation supplements other parallel studies on other tri-trophic ecoepidemic food chains. The general conclusions support earlier findings that purely demographic models are not an adequate description of real environments, if possible disease effects are not suitably accounted for in the model formulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Consumer Perception on Genetically Modified Food in Sri Lanka

J. W. A. Sajiwani, R. M. U. S. K. Rathnayaka

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 846-855
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/11757

The perception of the Sri Lankan public on Genetically Modified (GM) foods was examined by administrating a structured questionnaire to 800 selected respondents. Wide range of questions was included in the questionnaire and it was structured to have comprehensive idea about the understanding and perception of the respondents on genetically modified food. To ensure good representation of the public equal number of respondents were selected from academia, research scientists, university students and ordinary Sri Lankan. According to the results of the study, Average awareness of Sri Lankan public on GM food was 96%. Majority of respondents has received information about GM foods from TV & Radio. Compared to others, respondents from the academic and research institutes had higher knowledge on GM food. Highest level of interest on issues of Biotechnology and GM foods was shown by the academics which were followed by respondents from research institute and university students. However, ordinary Sri Lankan showed low interest. Seventy (70%) and sixty-three (63%) percent respondents from academic and research institutes respectively are willing to accept GM foods while twenty-one (21%) and twenty-five (25%) percent of university students and ordinary Sri Lankan respectively are willing to accept. The reason for rejecting of GM food of the majority of respondents was fear of side effects. According to the results of the study, there is a requirement for educational programmes on GM foods for Sri Lanka public. In those programmes special concern must be given to health risks/side effects. According to the results of the study, TV & radio programmes are the best method to improve the knowledge of Sri Lankan public on GM food.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Differences in TOEFL and TEM and Its Implications for Chinese Higher Education

Zeng Yueying

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 856-868
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/12146

In perspective of scoring criteria, topic settings, and testing emphases, this paper, by comparing the writing task of TOEFL and TEM-8, tried to analyze cultural differences reflected in those two exams, and to put forth some suggestions in English teaching of higher education in China. Based on the research, Chinese higher education on English should strike balance between linguistic foundation and comprehensive ability, autonomous learning and class teaching, and cultural competence and language competence.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Sexuality Education on Inappropriate Sexual Behaviours among Secondary School Students

Jude J. Obiunu

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 869-878
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10315

The study investigated the influence of parents, teachers and government attitudes towards sexuality education on inappropriate sexual behaviours of secondary school students. One hundred and twenty-five senior secondary school students were used for the study. Related literatures that discussed issues of Sexuality education, sexual behaviours among students were used as theoretical basis for the study. Three research questions and hypotheses were developed for the study. A research instrument titled “Sexuality Education for Inappropriate Sexual Behaviour. (SEISB) was used to collect data for the study. The instrument had 14 items which was validated with a reliability coefficient of 0.82 which shows that it was reliable for the study. Linear correlation and regression analysis was used as a statistical tool to test for relationship between the independent and dependent variables. From the findings, it was discovered that there is no significant relationship between parents’ and teachers ’ attitude and government activities towards inappropriate sexual behaviour among secondary school students. Recommendations were also made. This study will be significant to counsellors and the general public in sensitizing parents on issues regarding sexuality education so as to guide in order to curb inappropriate sexual behaviours among secondary school students.



Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Conservation Practices of Arable Crop Farmers in Atisbo Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

A. O. Ademola, M. G. Olujide

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 879-888
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/7807

Environmental effects of drought, flooding and erosion results to soil degradation. Sustainable soil conservation practices are thus inevitable for agricultural production, food security, farmers’ well being and rural economy. This study therefore investigated the soil conservation practices to mitigate soil degradation among arable crops farmers in Atisbo Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select 128 arable farmers. Data were collected with structured interview schedule. Frequencies, percentages, means, PPMC and t-test were used to summarize and analyze the data. Bush burning, soil erosion, soil compaction and deforestation were presumed by the arable crop farmers to be the causes of soil degradation in the area. Majority (60.2%) of the arable crop farmers perceived the effect of soil degradation to be disastrous and the common soil conservation practices are mulching, manure application and bush fallowing. The challenges in the adoption of soil conservation strategies are insufficient fund, unfavourable land tenure system, lack of incentive, inadequate information, little technical knowhow and low soil conservation skills. The perception of soil degradation among arable crop farmers is irrespective of their age and marital status, but depends largely on their educational level and religion. However, the higher the farmers’ presumption of the causes of soil degradation, (r= -0.02, p=0.825) the lower they adopt soil conservation strategies. It is recommended that farmers be educated on efficient soil use practices through cross fertilization of ideas among research, extension and farmers’ groups on sustainable soil use.


Open Access Original Research Article

Information Sources Dissemination and Utilization Patterns of the Artisanal Fishery Sector in Benue State, Nigeria

Ashiver Elizabeth Annune, Chinwe. N. Ezeani, Victoria N. Okafor

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 889-905
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/9588

The descriptive survey design using questionnaires and structured interview were adopted as instrument for data collection. Population of study consisted of 391 with the determined sample size of 198 fishermen. Frequency count, simple percentages and mean (x̅) were used to analyze the data. The study revealed traditional sources of information dissemination as contact with colleagues, information disseminated in market places and fishing festivals while modern sources of information dissemination included radio, mobile phone use and newspapers. The shortage of public librarians, libraries and extension workers, language barrier and lack of motivation were challenges associated with information dissemination and utilization by artisanal fishermen in Benue state. The study recommended that effective sources of information dissemination should be employed as this will enhance dissemination and utilization by artisanal fishermen and improve fish production rate in Benue state.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Relationship between National Income and Occupational Injury

Rishma Vedd, Nataliya Yassinski

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 906-917
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/11157

In this paper, we analyze the relationship between national GDP and safety standards by determining if the rate of fatal occupational injury is high or low. We examine countries in two broad categories: The developed markets and the emerging markets. This study is limited for the seven year range of 2001 through 2007. Among the selected countries in the developed economies are the USA, Norway, Germany, and United Kingdom. Among the selected countries in the emerging market countries are Russia, India, Mexico, and Thailand. We determine that countries in the emerging markets have higher rate of fatal occupational injury compared to the countries with developed economies. This analysis also demonstrates that national income and safety standards relate by determining the level of rate of fatal occupational injury low or high.


Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing the Implementation of New-born and Infant Hearing Screening Programmes at Primary Health Care Clinics in South Africa

Luisa Petrocchi-Bartal, Katijah Khoza-Shangase

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 935-949
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/11387

Purpose: This study aimed to explore possible factors which may influence the implementation of new-born and infant hearing screening programmes at Primary Healthcare Clinics in South Africa at Maternal Child Woman’s Health (MCWH) immunisation clinics.

Participants: Thirty primary healthcare immunisation clinic managers/acting managers were interviewed in two South African sample groups, in the North West province (NW) and Gauteng (GP).

Design: An exploratory, non-experimental, qualitative research design was employed incorporating both quantitative and qualitative information within the two sample groups.

Methods and Materials: An interview using a questionnaire was administered with primary health care (PHC) clinic nursing manager/acting manager, placed within the identified sites. The questionnaire encompassed areas such as work contexts, hearing screening contexts and information management systems, as well as quality control measures in place at these clinics.

Data Analysis: Content analysis was used to code emergent themes into specific categories. Frequency calculations of the emergent themes were conducted and results described qualitatively.

Results: Findings revealed high willingness by clinic managers to have hearing screening form part of their workload; but with attendance to important barriers that were identified. These barriers included resources such as ear and hearing knowledge constraints; human resources, equipment; and budgetary constraints. These findings have important implications for early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) in PHC.


Open Access Original Research Article

Crack-Growth on Canvas Paintings during Transport Simulation Monitored with Digital Holographic Speckle Interferometry

Vivi Tornari, Elsa Tsiranidou, Eirini Bernikola

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 967-986
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/11388

A study is herein presented aiming to detect structure cohesion failure before its appearance in form of cracks on precious painted canvas surfaces subjected to transportation. Transportation is of prime importance for the deterioration mechanisms that disintegrate the structural condition of movable painted artworks. Cracking is most common result of intense transportation and most common cause of reduced state of conservation. Here two realistic conditions are encountered in the laboratory to simulate transportation effects: A transport simulator that reproduces transportation vibrations and a high resolution portable system based on optical coherent metrology technique that monitors in real time the surface response. The measurements were carried out on canvas samples with known defects. The known defects, existing and indications of new cracks. Their propagation effects were revealed. Preliminary results obtained in this study are encouraging for significant assessment of transportation effects in crack growth and propagation studies through real time monitoring of canvas surface.


Open Access Original Research Article

Heat Transfer and Solidification of Molten Iron in a Pipe

Miguel A. Barron, Cesar Lopez, Dulce Y. Medina

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 987-1002
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/11625

The effect of the pipe wall temperature on the heat transfer and the internal solidification phenomena during the pouring of pure molten iron in a pipe is studied in this work. A mathematical model consisting in the motion, mass balance and heat equations is proposed. The Reynolds Stress Model is employed to simulate turbulence. The mathematical model considering transient three-dimensional simulations is numerically solved using the Computational Fluid Dynamics technique. To simplify the mushy zone problem, pure iron considered. Numerical simulations show that a pipe wall temperature of 300 K promotes early solidification and blockage, and yields strong internal gradients of velocity and temperature. Besides, a pipe wall temperature of 1000 K prevents solidification and promotes a more homogeneous flow and temperatures contours of molten iron in the pipe.


Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetic and Isothermal Studies for Removal of Zn (II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Using Lawsonia inermis as a Novel Biosorbent

Amarpreet Kour Bhatia, Fahmida Khan

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 1003-1016
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/12314

In this work, the use of a cost-effective biosorbent Lawsonia inermis was investigated for removal of Zn (II) ions from aqueous solutions. Different operational parameters such as the effect of pH, biomass dose, equilibrium time, temperature and initial metal ion concentrations were studied. Maximum adsorption of Zn (II) took place at optimum conditions of pH 5.0 and biomass dose of 0.2 g/L. It was found that the interactions between zinc ions and Lawsonia inermis were complicated, and the pH of solution was a key governing factor of such interactions. Biosorption equilibrium was achieved in 60 minutes. The adsorption kinetics followed Pseudo second order kinetic model and the value of rate constant was found to be 1.23 × 10-2 g mg-1min-1. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the surface functional groups of the biosorbent. FTIR analysis was used to reveal the involvement of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups in the removal of Zn (II) from aqueous streams. Linear Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms, and both of the two models were synchronic. The Langmuir adsorption capacity (qm) was found to be 76.92 mg g-1. Desorption experiments indicated that 0.5 M HCl was efficient desorbent for the recovery of Zn (II) from biomass. All the experimental facts reveal the efficiency of Lawsonia inermis based Zn (II) removal technology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Open Access Original Research Article

Shear Behaviour of Sand with Fines

S. Y. Thian, C. Y. Lee

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 1031-1039
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/12109

The aim in this paper is to present the comparison of results from the present study and published results for sand with fines (clay or silt) contents. The stress ratio and normalized peak deviator stress for sand-clay specimens are discussed, while the stress path and stress ratio of sand-silt specimens are presented, along with the data available for other types of sand with fines contents. It is found that the results from the present study are generally in agreement with the published results. The conditions of the tests undertaken for the soil specimens used for comparison purposes are similar.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Status and Magnitude of Fall-Related Injuries in High Schools in Kenya

P. N. Warutere, J. T. Mailutha, E. Gatebe, E. Mwachiro

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 1046-1053
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/9762

An accident is an unintended happening, sometimes resulting from negligence that may result in injury, loss of life or damage to property. Accidents are especially common among children within home or school environments. Schools are supposed to be safe centers of academic and exercise for children of all ages. However, in some cases, accidents cannot be avoided and children can be hurt. Accidents are also costly to schools due to insurance premiums and litigations. It is therefore important for us to understand the types and magnitude of accidents students may face. Equally important are the legal and financial implications that accidents may add to school authorities. This study was conducted to establish the major causes of injuries and the potential liabilities among the high school students in Kenya. Descriptive survey research design was carried out, where a total of 137, 778 students in 287 high schools were disproportionally selected from all the eight provinces in Kenya to provide the data. The schools’ principals, nurses and other healthcare personnel from the selected schools were also interviewed and requested to provide health records with the information on injury occurrence among their students. The study established that District schools had the highest number of injuries (4.24 in every 100 students) per year though there was no significant difference between the category of school and rates of injury occurrence (χ2 = 0.066; df =3; p>0.05).

However there was significant statistical difference in mean number of injuries between boys and girls (t = 4.34; df =3; p<0.05). The study recommends evaluation of the implementation of safety policy and general safety management structures in schools in order to cope effectively with injury challenges in the twenty first century.


Open Access Original Research Article

Injury Management in High Schools in Kenya

P. N. Warutere, J. T. Mailutha, E. Gatebe, E. Mwachiro

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 1065-1076
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/9761

Background: There is shortage of knowledge on the methods used to manage injuries in high schools in Kenya.

Objective: To describe the injury management intervention practice in high schools in Kenya.

Methods: Injury related data was collected in year 2010 from 287 nationally representative high schools through self-administered questionnaires and interviews. Participants were asked about injuries that had occurred in their schools in the preceding 12 months. The injuries were coded using classification methods derived from ICD – 10.

Results: Slightly less than half of the schools (49%, n=141) kept and updated students health records. In total, 3505 injuries were reported to have been sustained by the students resulting to an injury rate of 3.99 per 100 students per year. The rate of injury was higher among boys (4.79 injuries per 100 students) than among the girls (3.19 injuries per 100 students, RR 1.50; 95%CI: 1.41 – 1.60; p<0.001). About 30% of schools had no caregivers with only 58% of District schools engaging them. Only 18% of care givers had been trained on injury management. The study showed that 11% of the schools had no First Aid kits, 54% had no sanatorium and only 15% of District schools had a sanatorium.

Conclusion: High school students incur significant number of injuries and all schools should be prepared on the injury management. This study suggests that every school should formulate consistent injury management policies to address consistent post injury management procedures.


Open Access Original Research Article

An Application of Fuzzy Canonical Correlation and Fuzzy DEA for Ranking Bank Branches

Mahtab Nabovat, Abolfazl Saeidifar, Mohammad Ali Keramati

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 1077-1099
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/9073

Performance evaluation and efficiency analysis of economic units are of great importance. Measuring the efficiency of the banking industry has been one of the most interesting areas of research for the past few years. There are literally various techniques for measuring the relative performance of similar units such as banks including Data Envelopment Analysis. Data Envelopment Analysis method is a fact based mathematical programming which is used to measure and analyze the efficiency of decision making units. In addition, the canonical correlation analysis technique is one of the multivariate statistical methods to analyze and rank units. However, the observed values of the input and output data in real- world problems are sometimes imprecise or vague. Many researchers have proposed various fuzzy methods for dealing with the imprecise and ambiguous data in DEA.

In this paper, a canonical correlation analysis model is proposed using fuzzy numbers. This model can be used to rank the fuzzy efficiency of decision making units according to their efficiency values. This study aims to evaluate and rank the performance of MELLI bank branches based on FUZZY CCA and FUZZY DEA techniques.

We utilized the non-parametric Friedman test to compare the results from the two methods. Statistic test results indicated that the full ranking of the fuzzy canonical correlation analysis is consistent with results from fuzzy data envelopment analysis method.


Open Access Review Article

Statistical Relation Nature between Climatic Variables and Soil Moisture during the Production of Cotton (Gossypium barbadense)

Zakaria M. Sawan

Advances in Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, Page 740-756
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2014/10979

The information on impact of climatic factors on cotton production is not generally available, or at least not available or at least not available in the required form. Understanding this impact may help physiologists determine a possible control of the flowering mechanism in cotton plant. Field trials, in two successive seasons using cotton G. barbadense were carried out, to investigate the relationships between climatic factors, soil moisture status, and flower and boll production. The climatic factors considered were daily maximum air temperature, minimum air temperatures, maximum-minimum temperature (diurnal temperature range), sunshine duration, maximum relative humidity, minimum relative humidity, and wind speed. Minimum relative humidity and sunshine duration were the most significant climatic factors affecting flower and boll retention and production. Temperature appeared to be less important in the reproduction growth stage of cotton in Egypt than minimum relative humidity and sunshine duration. The soil moisture status showed low and insignificant correlation to flower and boll production [1].