Open Access Systematic Review Article

Role and Level of Engagement of Peer Researchers in Systematic Reviews: A Review Article

Mariangela Castro Arteaga, Mike Workentin, Gemechu Abeshu, Ify Anene, Akm Alamgir

Advances in Research, Volume 23, Issue 5, Page 6-17
DOI: 10.9734/air/2022/v23i530345

Aims: This article aims at examining the role of peer researchers in systematic reviews of sensitive topics. While there are articles on the participation of peer researchers in primary research, there are very few studies on their role in systematic reviews. This project asks three research questions:  What role do refugee/immigrant peers play in the systematic literature reviews of collaborative research models? What are the effective models used for engaging peer researchers in conducting systematic reviews of literature? In what ways are peer researchers being used in systematic reviews?.

Study Design and Methodology: this is a review article. Ovid Medline, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases were consulted to understand the extent, knowledge gap, and scope of this systematic literature review. The team developed Boolean operators with four keywords: (i) systematic review, (ii) role or contribution or participation or engagement, (iii) peer research or collaborative research, and (iv) participatory research. In total, 270 articles were found, from which 99 were duplicates, 164 articles were removed after checking their title and abstract, and seven articles were selected for full article review.

Results: All seven articles were systematic reviews focusing on the involvement of peer researchers in the healthcare field and described succinctly the role of peer researchers in conducting systematic reviews. Of them, two articles described peers’ involvement during the systematic review's design, methodology, and analysis activities; however, the involvement of immigrants/refugees as peer researchers in systematic reviews was not available despite repeated intentional searches. There is no mention of engaging any refugee peers in research on refugee interest.

Conclusion: Some studies show the benefits of involving peer researchers in a collaborative design. However, there is a scope for generating more evidence regarding the roles of refugee/immigrant peer-researchers in systematic reviews. From our practice, we recommend engaging at least two peers or 20% of the members of the research team for all levels of the research activity. The peer(s) need to have lived experience of the research of interest.

Open Access Opinion Article

Hypothesis of Nomadic Wireless Apparatuses Generating Electromagnetic Waves that are Accelerating Global Warming

David Allen Dodson

Advances in Research, Volume 23, Issue 5, Page 27-43
DOI: 10.9734/air/2022/v23i530347

The nomadic wireless apparatuses used by the global human population are generating an unrelenting, never-ending propulsion of electromagnetic waves that are escalating global warming temperatures. The unexpected, the unusual events occurring on the earth now are the rapid melting of ice shelves (the Antarctic), the extreme droughts (e.g., the drying up of rivers - the Rhine and dams - Hoover), the extreme summer heat (e.g., 40 Celsius in the United Kingdom), the floods (e.g., Las Vegas, France), and the behavior of land animals (e.g., monkeys) and sea life (e.g., sharks and whales). What artificial or natural variable should be investigated after known cited studies for the natural phenomena of firestorms and volcanoes, as well as the known inventions and processes such as agriculture, automobiles, and industrial factories? The electromagnetic wave, the conveyor of information originating from nomadic wireless apparatuses (e.g., cell phones, laptop computers is the seamless combination of manufactured inventions and the natural abundant energy of electromagnetic waves that are ignited by the information flow of nomadic wireless apparatuses that is quickening the rising global temperatures on the earth.

The phenomenon of nomadic wireless apparatuses generating electromagnetic waves is the most ignored global warming contributor considered today. The summing of nomadic wireless instruments’ digital carbon footprints (electricity) combined with electromagnetic waves (pulses sent back and forth between nomadic apparatuses) is a new class of global pollution. With respect to digital carbon footprints, engineers and others have quantified the estimated amount of energy required to ignite manufactured wireless electrical devices. These nomadic wireless manufactured devices are generating a tsunami of electromagnetic waves that are imperceptible, cloaked, and invisible to the human eye. What is occurring at this very moment is an avalanche of recursive electromagnetic waves, a nomadic wireless commotion that is occurring on an unparallel uninterrupted upward trend that is accelerating the dials of global warming prediction models.

The author focuses on electromagnetic waves, the messenger of nomadic wireless devices. The electromagnetic waves are the transporter of binary information of zeros and ones generated from nomadic wireless devices (e.g., smartphones). The first part of this paper identifies the past predictions and the fallout from known contributors to global warming. The attention is centered on the 1972 limits to growth predictions and their relevance and the necessity of a systems dynamics approach. The concept of exponential is introduced to convey the geometric upward trend of the implosion of information, zeros and ones being transported by electromagnetic waves. This is imperative as it defines the sheer magnitude of the rate of occurrence of not only the usage of the wireless instruments but the never-ending alphanumeric information being sent by electromagnetic waves into the ether. Next are the flow charts of temperatures from 1880 to 2022, and a simple algorithm that identifies cluster years applicable to each domain (i.e., natural phenomena, automobiles, and nomadic wireless instruments, the generator of electromagnetic waves). The method that follows identifies, defines, and contends that electromagnetic waves are another natural fuel source that must be managed as much as any other greenhouse gas recognized. The discussion of the paper centers on the how what, and where electromagnetic waves are part of the problem contributing to rising global temperatures. The conclusion of the paper deals with the necessity of recognizing the need to study the environmental impact of electromagnetic waves as contributors to global warming.

Open Access Short communication

Scientific Communication on Artificial Intelligence: The Question of the Social Status of the Biodroid

Philippe Fauquet-Alekhine

Advances in Research, Volume 23, Issue 5, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/air/2022/v23i530344

Boidroids, androids mixing organic and synthetic components controlled by Artificial Intelligence, will likely spread soon in the daily life. They will interact with humans and will be thinking, behaving and feeling like humans. They will likely take on the appearance of humanoids in order to be better accepted in the civil society. Such artificial entities might be a source of comfort for humans by carrying out tasks that would improve the daily life for example; at the same time, they might be a source of concern by being the bearer of an intrinsic threat associated with an autonomy that humans might no longer control. Whether they are perceived positively or negatively, the question of their social status will soon have to be considered: The imminent nature of this consideration is illustrated by the android Sofia which was granted citizenship in 2017 by Saudi Arabia. Demonstrating the need to elaborate a legal and ethical frame to this perspective, the present article argues that scientific and non-scientific communities must seize the issue from now. The article also warns that, to date, the scientific communication on the topic (i.e. the written contributions of scientists) shows that the scientific communities as well as the civil society are far from being prepared to this eventuality. It concludes that the social status of entities such as biodroids must be analyzed and socialized before the civil society being confronted to the issue; this is to be done especially through scientific and non-scientific communications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Waiving Out-of-Pocket Access Fees on HIV Testing and Linkage Services in Rivers State, Nigeria

G. C. Owhonda, C. N. Eze-Emiri, U. Edewor, P. S. Dakum, C. O. Mensah, K. O. Olupitan

Advances in Research, Volume 23, Issue 5, Page 18-26
DOI: 10.9734/air/2022/v23i530346

Introduction: The financial implications of accessing health services negatively impact end-users and result in the non-utilization of healthcare services in most resource-poor countries. Direct and indirect costs of access to HIV services impede the uptake and adherence to ART, thereby hindering viral suppression in these regions. Evidence showed that out-of-pocket user fee waivers effectively improve access to healthcare services and expand their utilization. The payment of out-of-pocket user fees to access HIV services in Rivers State affected linkage to ART and was consequently waived to increase uptake of HIV services. The study aimed to determine the waiver's impact on linkage to ART.

Methods:  descriptive trend study to determine the difference in linkage to ART services following the waiver of access fees using data collected from the HIV control program, Rivers State.

Findings: There was a gradual increase in the Number of individuals who received HIV Testing Services (HTS) and received their test results (HTS_TST_POS) after the implementation of the user fee waiver, the total HTS_TST_POS during the study period was 157,525; with a mean (IQR) of 1101.57 (107, 2061) HTS_TST_POS per week. The increase occurred between the third quarter of 2019 and the second quarter of 2021, after which a decline occurred. The waiver of the out-of-pocket payments policy was announced about week 8 of 2021, after which linkage to ART consistently tethered above 90%. The weekly mean (IQR) value of linkage to ART was 98.7% (76.6%, 105.9%); and ranged between 94% to 100% within yearly quarters; there was a 100% linkage to ART throughout the year 2021. The total number of persons currently on treatment increased from 21,914 to 173,212.

Conclusion: Although the evidence supporting the effectiveness of user fee waiver as an intervention is debatable, removing out-of-pocket payments to access HIV services was effective in Rivers State and significantly improved linkage to ART.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti-Diabetic Property of Methanol Extract of Ficus Exasperata Vahl. (Moraceae)

Ali Ibeabuchi Jude, Asogwa Felix Keneolisa, Offiah Raymond Ogbonna, Okonkwo Raymond Maduabuchi, Nwobodo Ebenezer Ugochukwu

Advances in Research, Volume 23, Issue 5, Page 44-49
DOI: 10.9734/air/2022/v23i5911

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from impairments in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. The side effect of orthodox is alarming and expensive. This prompted a search for a cheaper and reliable alternative drug medicinal plant for the management of diabetes.

Aim: This study aimed at carrying out anti-diabetics evaluation of methanol extract of Ficus exasperata leaves.

Methodology: The cold maceration method was used to obtain the extract using methanol as solvent. Lorkes method was used to carry out the acute toxicity study on mice, alloxan induced model was used to evaluate the antidiabetic potentials on diabetic rats and blood glucose level was measured using glucometer and statistically analyzed.

Result: Acute toxicity study indicated no mortality or any behavioral changes even at 5000mg/kg body weight. The extract at 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg exhibited anti-diabetics activity in dose dependent manner. 400mg/kg body weight reduces blood glucose level significantly at p value less than 0.05 when compared to the standard drug.

Conclusion: The methanol extract of Ficus exasperata leaves have demonstrated a reasonable antidiabetics activity. The research has given an insight in the use of the plant leaves in controlling blood sugar level and substantiate its folkloric uses. Further studies on isolation of bioactive compound, establishment of the mechanism of action for the observed anti-diabetic activity and hepato-renal and hematological effects are recommended.