Open Access Systematic Review Article

Annexin A2 versus Alpha-Fetoprotein in Diagnosing Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Diagnostic Meta-Analysis

Erick Thokerunga, Abdullahi Omar Ahmed, Mbasani Rogious

Advances in Research, Volume 23, Issue 3, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/air/2022/v23i330331

Background: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) remains widely used for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) despite its low sensitivity and specificity. Recently, Annexin A2, a highly expressed protein in HCC and almost undetectable in normal liver cells has been studied as a potential alternative.

Objective: To synthesize evidence for the diagnostic accuracy of annexin A2 as an alternative to AFP in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Methods: PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (chkd-cnki) databases were searched without time constraints up to 2022. Meta-analysis was conducted using Meta-Disc software. 

Results: 6 studies were meta-analyzed. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for Annexin A2 were 84% [95% CI :( 80 – 87)], and 78% [95% CI :( 71 – 84)] respectively, while AFP was 70% [95% CI :( 66 – 74)] and 79% [95% CI :( 72 – 85)] respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio was 20.35 [95% CI :( 9.76 – 42.42)] for Annexin A2, and 9.71 [95% CI :( 5.27 – 17.88)] for AFP. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.88 for Annexin A2 and 0.82 for AFP.

Conclusions: Annexin A2 is significantly more sensitive than AFP for HCC diagnosis but less specific. A combination of Annexin A2 and AFP could improve accuracy.


Open Access Original Research Article

Academic Interest and Self-esteem as Correlates of Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement in English Language in Nigeria

Akuezuilo, J. A., Mbachu, C. U., Akunne, L. I.

Advances in Research, Volume 23, Issue 3, Page 13-22
DOI: 10.9734/air/2022/v23i330332

Aims: This study examined academic interest and self-esteem as correlates of secondary school students’ academic achievement in English language in Nigeria.

Study Design: Correlational survey

Place and Duration of Study: Anambra State, Nigeria, conducted between December 2021 and March 2022.

Method: The accessible population for this study comprises 18,297 senior secondary school two SS2 students from 261 secondary schools situated in the six education zones in Anambra state, the sampling technique adopted was the proportionate stratified random sampling technique. This was use to select 2,160 SS 2 students. The instruments adopted for data collection are: students’ academic interest scale, self-esteem scale and students’ academic achievement scores in English language. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression Analysis were statistical tools adopted for data analysis.

Results: Table 1, 2 and 3 revealed a moderate positive relationship between secondary school students’ academic interest, self-esteem jointly with their academic achievement in English language. Similarly, hypothesis in Table 4, 5 and 6 reports that at 0.05 level of significance and 2158df, the t-test statistic value 15.95 with a Pvalue of 0.00 is less than 0.05, hence the second hypotheses is rejected. This implies that the relationship existing between self-esteem and academic achievement of secondary school students in English language in Anambra State is significant. Furthermore, at 0.05 level of significance 3df numerator and 2045df denominator, the F statistics value 314.12, with Pvalue of 0.00 is less than 0.05, the third null hypothesis is rejected. This goes to show that the relationship existing among secondary school students’ academic interest and self-esteem jointly with academic achievement in English language is significant.

Conclusion: This study concludes that the joint relationship existing among academic interest, self-esteem jointly with the academic achievement of secondary school students in English language was reported to be moderate and also positive. This implies that the coefficient was close to 1.00 (perfect relationship). Justifying this, it could be likened to the fact that students only spend 45 to 90 minutes per day in school with each teacher, so it is nearly impossible for them to unconsciously transmit all of the knowledge they need to get to them within that time frame. So therefore, there is need for parents as well to fulfil their first job, which is to be a teacher to their children. In the same vein, the relationship existing among secondary school students’ academic interest and self-esteem jointly with academic achievement in English language is statistically significant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sulphate Minimization in Agricultural Drainage Water Using Modified Rice Husk

M. A. Adejumobi, T. B. Adebayo, O. E. Onofua

Advances in Research, Volume 23, Issue 3, Page 23-31
DOI: 10.9734/air/2022/v23i330333

Eutrophication, salinization, hypoxia, and toxic algae, among other environmental damages are costly consequences of agricultural drainage water (ADW), and therefore poses a threat to ecological biodiversity, food security and agriculture sustainability. This work aimed to assess the adsorption efficiency of rice husk (RH) modified by chemical and thermal treatments for sulphate minimization from ADW. RH obtained from a local rice mill was washed in distilled water, oven-dried at 105 ˚C for 24 h, milled and sieved into 0.3–1.18 mm particle sizes. The optimum condition for carbonization was determined by varying the temperature- 200, 300 and 400 ˚C and time- 1, 1.5, and 2 h, respectively. The RH was activated by chemical (H3PO4 and ZnCl2) and thermal treatment. Batch experiments were carried out varying temperature (40-60 °C), adsorption time (15–140 min) and adsorbent dose (1 and 2 g) in an ADW with known sulphate concentration, 30 mg/L. The carbonization yield at 400, 300 and 200 ˚C varies within 18.91- 27.48%, 27.39- 32.82 % and 81.94- 95.75% respectively. It was observed that the percentage of carbon converted into silica increases with burning time; hence, the optimum temperature of 350 ˚C for 2 h was used for carbonization. Also, sulphate adsorption rate increased with contact time and dosage suggesting that the process is controlled by surface and pore diffusion. Based on the temperature study, adsorption was favourable at lower temperatures. H3PO4 and ZnCl2 treated adsorbents have similar removal efficiency; however, ZnCl2 treated adsorbent has a higher efficiency due to its ability to enhance the stability and mesoporosity of carbonaceous material. Modified RH is a potential adsorbent that could be of noble use in ADW quality minimization. However, the huge gap between literature studies and field application needs to be bridged by good extension services and appropriate policy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synergistic Effect of Vitamin E and C Treatment on Paraquat Induced Haemotoxicity in Rattus norvegicus

Okolonkwo, Benjamin Nnamdi, Jonathan, Nyebuchi, Adjekuko, Ohwonigho Collins, Zebedee, Loveday Udu

Advances in Research, Volume 23, Issue 3, Page 32-37
DOI: 10.9734/air/2022/v23i330334

Paraquat is a herbicide, commonly used in the agricultural practices to prevent weed infestation. The Environmental Protection Agency in some countries has placed a restriction on paraquat and there is no identified record of chelating agent or antidote for paraquat. Oxidation of paraquat results in the of superoxides formation. Superoxides generation causes cellular damage. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a water soluble vitamin, with antioxidant potential. It is efficient in clearing free radicals, including hydroxyl radicals, peroxyl radicals and superoxide anion. E is a fat soluble vitamin but considered to be relatively safe when compared to other fat-soluble vitamins Empirical evidence has shown therapeutic efficacy of vitamin E hence its common use in therapeutics. Our goal is to determine the potency of combined effect of vit. E + C on paraquat induced toxicity in male albino rats. As much as 200 rats were obtained and parted into four main groups of 50 rats each. The groups were A, B C and D. The “A” group was not induced with paraquat; groups “B”, “C”, and “D” was induced every two weeks with 0.02g, 0.04g, and 0.06g of paraquat per kg of rat respectively for three months. Each of the main groups had subgroups. “A” group had “A0” and “AVEC” subgroups; “B” group had “B0” and “BVEC” subgroups; “C” group had “C0” and “CVEC” subgroups; “D” group had “D0” and “DVEC” subgroups. “A0”, “B0”, “C0” and “D0” subgroups were treated with paraquat only, while “AVEC”, “BVEC”, “CVEC” and “DVEC” were treated orally with 500mg of vitamin E and 2000mg/l of vitamin C medicated water every week. Comparison of intergroups A0, B0, C0 and D0 was statistically significant, p-value<0.05 in Hb and PCV. There was no statistical difference with respect to T-WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocytes across the groups. AVEC, BVEC, CVEC and DVEC intergroup comparison was statistically significant, p-value<0.05 in Hb and PCV, whereas in comparison with T-WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocytes were not statistically significant among the groups. The finding from this study has shown that a combination of vitamin E and C therapy is potent against paraquat toxicity in male albino rats on one month of weekly treatment and can be used to treat the condition on a weekly basis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Preschool Children’s throwing Ability by throwing Distance and Velocity

Yu Uchida, Shin-ichi Demura, Kazuyoshi Miyaguchi

Advances in Research, Volume 23, Issue 3, Page 38-44
DOI: 10.9734/air/2022/v23i330335

A remarkable decrease in children’s throwing ability has recently been reported. Until now, although throwing ability of children has been mainly assessed by distance, velocity has also become easily instrumentally measurable. However, the relationship between the throwing distance and velocity remains unclear. This study examined the age and gender differences in throwing distance and velocity, and their relationship in preschool children. Participants were 270 children (boys: 134, girls: 136), 3–6 year olds. Both the measured values had high reliability (ICC = throwing distance: boys, 0.73, girls, 0.70; throwing velocity: boys, 0.83, girls, 0.78) and were greater in boys than in girls, in 6-year-olds than in 5-year-olds, and in 5-year-olds than in 3- and 4-year-olds. Partial correlation coefficient eliminating age effect was significant (boys: 0.65, girls: 0.53). Correlation at each age was significant and high at 5 and 6 years old (r = 0.70~0.76), but insignificant only in 3-year-old girls. In conclusion, throwing velocity has high reliability, similar to throwing distance, and reflects gender- and age-related differences in preschool children. Although throwing velocity is related to throwing distance, their relationship differs according to children’s gender and age.