Open Access Case study

Effect of Faulty Design on Construction and Maintenance of Buildings in Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria

J. C. Ikedionu, K. C. Okolie, F. O. Ezeokoli

Advances in Research, Volume 20, Issue 6, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v20i630173

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate how faulty design affects construction and maintenance of building projects in Asaba, Delta state with a view to establishing their level of occurrence and providing ways of mitigating them.

Study Design: It was a survey research, the study was effected via literature review and a well-structured questionnaire. Likewise, interviews were carried out to substantiate the findings of the questionnaire survey.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria for a period of 2 years.

Methodology: Being a survey research, 80 questionnaires were administered to the respondents and only 67 were returned which represents 84% response rate. The data collected was presented and analysed using tables, frequency, mean score and relative importance index. The analysis was aided by a computer-based software, named Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.

Results: The study found out that; inadequate structural design, lack of details, lack of inspection, inaccurate measurement, not complying with specification, use of expired materials, wrong use of equipment, inadequate performance of equipment, unclear specification were rated as the most severe defects in each of the groups. Also, the findings showed that defects found in the study are categorized as design deficiencies, material deficiencies, construction deficiencies and subsurface deficiencies.

Conclusion: The study concluded recommending that the designers must take into account maintenance issues during design and construction stages. Also, proper sensitization of building contractors with respect to durable materials which are suitable to the immediate environmental condition should be purse as well as the construction techniques and competence of workforce. Likewise, strict quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) program should be encouraged during project design and construction.

Open Access Minireview Article

Aflatoxin B1 Affects Kenyan Markets: How It Can be Managed

Solomon Omwoma Lugasi

Advances in Research, Volume 20, Issue 6, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v20i630175

Aflatoxin B1 is a toxin produced as secondary fungal metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus, particularly A. flavus. The toxin has significantly contaminated the food supply chain especially cereals in Kenya. Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) has recently banned five maize flour brands, citing high aflatoxin levels. They also suspended seven peanut butter products and the permits of their parent companies over aflatoxin contamination. The huge losses encountered by these companies calls for concerted efforts to manage aflatoxin in cereals. Aflasafe, a natural product for controlling poisonous A. flavus in food crops, including maize is made from roasted sterile sorghum (usually colored blue using food color) coated with non-poison producing types of A. flavus native to Kenya. The product is broadcasted in the maize fields during flowering and after exposure to sufficient moisture, the friendly Aflasafe fungi grow out as green spores containing millions of spores that are eventually spread to the crop, carried by wind and insects in the manner that aflatoxin-producing fungi are spread.

Open Access Original Research Article

Calcium and Magnesium Adsorption by Activated Carbon Produced with Alternative Materials

S. S. A. Lima, S. C. de Paiva, H. J. B. de Lima Filho, G. M. C. Takaki, A. S. Messias

Advances in Research, Volume 20, Issue 6, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v20i630172

Residues originated from agro-industry can be used for various purposes, including in the production of activated carbon. Thus, for the conduction of this research, an Activated Carbon (AC) was prepared with mixtures of grape bagasse (B) and coconut fiber (C), with the mass relations of coconut/bagasse of 100/0; 75/25; 50/50; 25/75 and 0/100. The 50C/50B considered statistically the most suitable for the production of CA was activated with ZnCl2, under N2 flow of 100 ml/min, at 550°C, for 1 hour. To evaluate its efficiency, 200.00 mg of AC were used in 200,0 ml of the desalinator tailing from the municipality of Riacho das Almas, Pernambuco, Brazil, with contact time of 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes, in a statistical design entirely randomized. Data were subjected to statistical analysis, generating Box Plot type charts. The result of calcium and magnesium adsorption revealed the efficiency of activated carbon with a dose of 50C/50B when in contact for up to 60 minutes with desalinator tailing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Behaviour of Salicornia neei Cultivated in Different Spacing and Irrigated with Desalinizer Tailings

C. F. V. De Figueiredo, J. G. Fernandes, E. W. F. Gomes, A. S. Messias

Advances in Research, Volume 20, Issue 6, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v20i630174

The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of line and row spacing on biomass yield and minerals absorbed by Salicornia neei irrigated with desalination reject. The experiment was conducted in beds at the headquarters of the Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco-IPA, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with treatments consisting of six spacings between plants and rows: 5x5, 10x10, 15x15, 20x20, 30x30 and 40x40 cm, with three repetitions and 30 Salicornia neei plants per repetition. After six months, the aerial part of the plant was collected and analyzed bromatologically. It was statistically noticed that the 15x15 cm spacing between plants favored where most bromatological determinations: dry matter weight - DMW (9,353.0 kg/ha); total nitrogen - NT (3.09%); total protein - PT (19.31%); acid detergent fiber - ADF (30.50%); neutral detergent fiber - NDF (38.15%); total fiber - FT (26.71%) and ethereal extract - EE (1.91%). Regarding the phytoextraction by Salicornia neei, the most efficient spacing were: 20x20 cm for sodium - Na (15.5%); 30x30 cm for potassium - K (3.00%) and 40x40 cm for calcium - Ca (4.18%) and magnesium - Mg (3.90%), showing the potential use of Salicornia neei in soils affected by salts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mass Concentration and Elemental Constituent of Particulate Matter in Ambient Air of Two Cement Industries and Its Health Risk Analysis

M. Onwuka, G. O. Avwiri, C. P. Ononugbo

Advances in Research, Volume 20, Issue 6, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v20i630176

Particulate matter concentration was measured over two cement production sites in Nigeria using a gravimetric high volume air sampler and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for elemental analysis. The mass concentration of SPM ranged from 7.50 µg/m3 to 303.1 µg/m3 with mean value of 157.9 µg/m3 /day in Okpella Bua cement production site and 4.4 to 283.3 µg/m³ with mean value of 103.2 µg/m³/day for Unicem cement production site, Calabar. The elemental analysis shows the presence of Zn, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cr and Cd. The heavy metals in the order of decreasing concentration are Zn> Pb> Ni > Mn> Cr> Cd: 7.84> 2.60> 2.00> 0.80> 0.76 > 0.11 (µg/m3) respectively. All the values were higher than NESREA limit except Mn in Okpella Bua site. In UNICEM Calabar site, heavy metal distribution showed Zn> Pb> Ni> Mn> Cr> Cd: 12.50> 3.00> 1.26> 0.66> 0.41> 0.14 (µg/m3), respectively. The carcinogenic risks estimated exceeded the acceptable limit for adult, workers and children. The result showed that about 106 adults and 227 children will be affected by cancer related health problem. The mean value of the hazard quotient (HQ) was 1.46 and 2.46 from Unicem and 1.76 and 2.95 from Bua cement area for chromium and lead exposure of adult and children respectively, which shows the occurrence of the non-carcinogenic health effect on both adult and children. The result of this work revealed that children have higher risk than adult due to exposure to this inhalable particulate matter.