Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Clitoria ternatea Blue and White Flowered Leaves

A. Divya, J. Anbumalarmathi, S. Aruna Sharmili

Advances in Research, Volume 14, Issue 5, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/39030

The present study was conducted to screen the phytochemical constituents, identifying the compounds present by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS), functional groups present by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FT- IR) in the ethyl acetate extract of white-flowered leaf Clitoria ternatea, explicit the antibacterial activity, antioxidant assay of using methanol and ethyl acetate extract of Clitoria ternatea blue and white flowered leaves. Clitoria ternatea blue flowered leaves possess 7.5% of total ash whereas white flowered leaves possess 8.5%. The phytochemical analysis revealed that blue flowered leaves contain alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, glycosides, coumarins, catechol, quinines, gum and mucilage while, in white flowered leaves had alkaloids, glycosides, catechol, gum and mucilage were present. A total of 8 compounds such as 1- Decanol, 2- ethyl, 1- Eicosanol, Sulphurous acid octadecyl 2- propyl ester, Eicosanoic acid, L- (+)- ascorbic acid 2,6- dihexadecanoate, Sulphurous acid, pentadecyl 2-propyl ester, Oleic acid, 1-Hexyl-2 nitrocyclohexane were detected in the ethyl acetate extract of white-flowered leaves of C. ternatea using GC-MS. FT-IR analysis of the same had  characteristic bands at 2983.88 cmˉ1. indicating the presence of C-H stretching.  The ethyl acetate extract of white-flowered leaves C. ternatea had antibacterial and antifungal activity against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis, C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. kruzi. The total phenolic content of methanolic extract of C. ternatea blue flowered leaf was 25 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent/ g Dry Weight (mg GAE / g DW), and white flowered leaf was 18 mg GAE / g DW. The total flavonoid content of methanolic extract of C. ternatea blue flowered leaf was 10 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g  Dry Weight (mg QE / g DW), and white flowered leaf was 5 mg QE/g DW. Maximum scavenging activity of 86.6% was observed in the blue flowered leaf ethyl acetate extract (DPPH assay). Maximum scavenging activity of 82% (H2O2 assay) and 95% (total antioxidant) was observed in the white flowered leaf ethyl acetate extract.


Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Clear Air Effects: Implication on Microwave Radio Communication Systems in Nigeria

O. L. Ojo, J. S. Ojo

Advances in Research, Volume 14, Issue 5, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/40916

The variation of refractivity with height is of major importance in controlling the path                                       of propagation of radio wave in the troposphere. The variation which leads to                                      anomalous propagation such as sub refraction, super refraction and ducting on terrestrial                            paths is of great importance for microwave links. In this paper, 5-year (2009 – 2013) data of climatological parameters like pressure, temperature and relative humidity among others,                                at the ground surface and at the first 100 m altitude over five locations across Nigeria (Akure,              Minna, Enugu, Jos and Sokoto) are analysed to ascertain their impact on microwave communication links in Nigeria. The analyses involved the influence of refractivity gradient and k-factor on the season of the year as well as their implications on microwave communication systems. The results revealed that different locations have different average values of k-factor in different seasons of the year. Hence, we can conclude that the fixed value of 1.33 recommended by the ITU may either underestimate or overestimate k-factor value in Nigeria. The overall results also show a        common occurrence of sub-refraction in the arid region and super-refraction in the coastal region of Nigeria.


Open Access Original Research Article

E-Teaching Competencies for Capacity-Building of Lecturers for Effective Delivery of Vocational Oriented Courses in the Universities

Surajudeen Rotimi Adelaja, Ismail Olaniyi Muraina

Advances in Research, Volume 14, Issue 5, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/41016

This paper determined the e-teaching competencies for capacity building needs of lecturers for effective delivery of vocational oriented programmes in the universities. Three research questions guided the study. The study made use of survey research design. It was carried out in south-west states of Nigeria. The population for the study was 105 lecturers of technical education and computer education. A self developed 44 competency item, questionnaire was used for data collection and it was validated by three experts. Cronbach Alpha reliability method was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument while the reliability coefficient of 0.82 was obtained. One hundred and five copies of questionnaire were administered to the respondents by the researchers while 101 copies of the questionnaire were returned and analyzed using Mean and Improvement Need Index (INI) to answer the research questions. It was found out that those lecturers of technical education and computer education needed capacity building in the operating computer, up loading of text on the internet and videoconferencing for e-teaching in universities. It is therefore recommended that the findings of this study be packaged and used for retraining lecturers of vocational oriented programmes through seminars, workshops or shot duration courses on e- teaching for effective delivery of technical and computer science education courses in the universities.


Open Access Review Article

Nutritional and Sensory Property of Chips Made from Potato (S. T.)

Tizita Mamo

Advances in Research, Volume 14, Issue 5, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/38718

The purpose of this paper was to summarize nutritional and sensory property   of chips made from potato (Solanum tuberosum l.). Potatoes have an important role in human nutrition. It is a source of carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and minerals in the diets. Tuber quality is an import attribute for processing, and should be enhanced for increasing farmers’ income and livelihood. The acceptability of potatoes for processing as chips is largely dependent on the quality of the end products. Blanching improves chips color, texture, sweetness, and reduce sourness and bitterness thereby increasing its overall acceptability. French fries and potato crisps are the most consumed processed potato products in large cities. High specific gravity is a sign of that the raw potatoes will produce high chip volume due to high dry matter content and has crispy texture. Tuber with low reducing sugar produce light color chips and is more acceptable by consumers. 


Open Access Review Article

Sustainable Purchasing and Supply Chain Management: The Entrepreneurial Role of the Purchasing Function

S. Agrogiannis, I. Kinias

Advances in Research, Volume 14, Issue 5, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/41246

Strengthening functional effectiveness and raising awareness of purchasing’s aggregate value-added to the firm's sustainability agenda, calls for expanding sensitivity and receptiveness to the challenges it faces. This presupposes reconsidering the function's relationships within the company and establishing its position on the interface of strategy and operations. However, and while prior research has underlined the growing importance of purchasing, little is known how the purchasing function can be recognised as an equal partner and what the necessary capabilities are. Heeding the calls of both academics and practitioners for increasing understanding on purchasing successfully tackling sustainable supply chain challenges, the paper adopts a theory building approach to provide clarity with respect to various aspects of the concept of sustainable purchasing and deliver transferrable insight into the implementation process of integrating sustainability concerns into purchasing practices. To this end, we build on prior work within the Dynamic Capabilities field of strategic management to utilise this theory as the main supportive pillar of our research, in effect moving closer to the view of purchasing managers as entrepreneurs. Hence, the novel framework that the study presents constitutes the basis for discussing both why and how the purchasing function should become involved in sustainable supply chain management, thus lending credence to voices concerned over substantiating the function's indispensable role in the sustainability era. The paper’s conclusion delves into the nature and interrelationship of purchasing managers’ capabilities. This is explicated by justifying how they could disembark from a pure transactional approach and actively participate in the identification of challenges as well as opportunities and subsequently develop appropriate responses to accommodate more sustainable supply chains. The verdict of viewing purchasing managers as business pioneers is further elaborated and coupled with the theoretical contributions, managerial implications and potential avenues for future research. Overall, the paper lends credence to the argument that reaping benefits through sustainability assumes purchasing’s strategic alignment through certain interactions.