Open Access Short Research Article

Principal Component Technique for Pre-harvest Crop Yield Estimation Based on Weather Input

Megha Goyal, Salinder ., Suman ., Urmil Verma

Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/42670

Forecasting of crop production is one of the most important applications of statistics in agriculture. Such predictions before harvest are needed by the national and state governments for various policy decisions relating to storage, distribution, pricing, marketing, import- export, etc. Therefore, a methodology for the estimation of wheat yield, ahead of harvest time, is developed specifically for wheat growing districts in Haryana (India). The Haryana state, having a total geographical area of 44212 sq. km, was divided into four zones for pre-harvest crop yield forecasts. An attempt has been made in this paper to estimate the yield of the wheat crop using principal components of the weather parameters spread over the crop growth period. Principal component analysis has been used for the purpose of developing zonal yield forecast models because of multicollinearity present among weather variable. The results indicate the possibility of district-level wheat yield prediction, 4-5 weeks ahead of the harvest time, in Haryana. Zonal weather models had the desired predictive accuracy and provided considerable improvement in the district-level wheat yield estimates. The estimated yield(s) from the selected models indicated good agreement with State Department of Agriculture (DOA) wheat yields by showing 2-10 percent average absolute deviations in most of the districts except for the Rohtak district observing 12.81 percent average absolute deviation from the real-time data.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Preliminary Evaluation of Broadband Stations in Nigeria

Kadiri Umar Afegbua, Tahir Abubakar Yakubu, Haruna T. Sanni, Olawale Oluwafemi, Hayrullah Karabulut, Musavver Didem Cambaz

Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/39641

Preliminary evaluation of the performance of the Broadband Seismic Stations in Nigeria has been carried out. The aim is to test the recording capability, data quality for research and estimate the signal to noise ratios of the stations. The methodology involves the noise analysis for the Kaduna station located on basement complex in the northern part of Nigeria, and Nsukka station on the sedimentary basin in the South, using the Pascal Quick Look Extended (PQLX) package. In the first instance, data used in the research were continuously recorded during 2010 for 1-year period. Power spectral densities were computed from one-hour long data segments from both stations. Secondly, possible sources of noise to the stations as well as their signal to noise ratios (SNR) were estimated. Results from the first and second approaches were compared with the global noise models of Peterson’s. Thirdly, data from both stations were tested for research reliability using noise correlation and receiver functions techniques. The results showed high noise levels at both stations; low SNR at Nsukka and high SNR at Kaduna. Findings also showed that sources of noise to the stations are both natural and anthropogenic in nature. Results from noise correlations and receiver functions indicated that the correlations are antisymmetric indicating that the noise sources are non-uniform. The seasonal variations of the noise were also observed on the monthly correlations. The receiver functions computed from Nsukka station did not provide a sufficient number of receiver functions. There was no clear Moho conversion at Kaduna station and the results of H-K stack were poor. Findings from this study are expected to serve as references towards illuminating operational impediment associated with broadband stations in Nigeria and useful measures have been provided in this paper to improve data quality for healthy research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Seed Coating Polymer and Micronutrients on Stomatal Conductance and Resistance at Different Growth Stages of Pigeonpea

Mallikarjun G. Handiganoor, S. B. Patil, S. N. Vasudevan

Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/42837

Aim: The study aims to evaluate the effect of seed coating polymer and micronutrients on stomatal conductance and resistance at different growth stages of pigeonpea.

Place of Study: Field experiment was carried out during kharif 2014 at Main Agricultural Research Station, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, India.

Methodology: A randomised block design was applied to determine the effect of seed coating polymer and micronutrients on stomatal conductance and resistance at different growth stages of pigeonpea. The experiment consisted of 16 different treatments laid out in a randomised block design with three replications. The micronutrients were applied to the seed either individually or in combination as per the studied treatments.

Results and Discussion: The study result revealed improved physiological parameters due to seed polymerisation with micronutrients and foliar spray, there was a significant difference in the seed yield of treated treatments with that of the untreated control. Physiological observations on Stomatal conductance (M mol/m2s) and resistance (m2s/mol) of five randomly tagged plants were recorded by using leaf porometer (SC-1 porometer, Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA, USA) at 45, 90 and 120 DAS and finally seed yield was recorded, analysed statistically to study the effect of seed coating polymer and micronutrients on stomatal conductance and resistance at different growth stages of pigeonpea. Seed coating with polymer, micronutrients and foliar spray had significant (p<0.05) influence on stomatal conductance, resistance and seed yield of pigeonpea. Stomatal conductance differed significantly due to seed polymerisation with micronutrients and foliar spray at all the growth stages.

Conclusion: Micronutrients viz., zinc, boron and potassium molybdate in combination along with standardised seed coating polymer significantly influenced the physiological parameters viz., stomatal conductance and resistance of leaf thus enhancing the photosynthetic efficiency, finally helping in the better establishment of seedlings and higher seed yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicological Responses of African Mud Catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell, 1822) Fingerlings Exposed to Culture Water Contaminated with Different Concentrations of Cypermethrin

Akaninyene Paul Joseph, Bassey Esio Otong, Finian Tobias Okoro, Ofonmbuk Edet Akpan

Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/43309

The toxicological effects of cypermethrin on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings and its contamination of culture water was studied. Ten fingerlings were stocked in each aquarium and was exposed to 5 different concentrations of cypermethrin and there was a control group. The fingerlings were exposed to 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 ppm of cypermethrin in triplicate. A total of 180 C. gariepinus fingerlings with a mean weight of 1.85 ± 0.29 g were used throughout the study. The toxicant altered the physico-chemical parameters of culture water. The water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and turbidity of the contaminated culture water increased with increase in the concentration of cypermethrin, while the dissolved oxygen (DO) decreased with increase in the toxicant concentration. Temperature, conductivity, pH and turbidity values were higher and the DO level was lower in the aquarium contaminated with the highest concentration of the toxicant compared to the control group. Statistically, the physico-chemical parameters varied significantly between the culture waters contaminated with different concentrations of cypermethrin across all exposure durations at p<0.05, except for temperature over 96 hours exposure period which was insignificant at p>0.05. The water temperature, pH and conductivity of the culture water were within the WHO acceptable limits except the dissolved oxygen (30 ppm group over 72 and 96 hour exposure duration) and turbidity (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 ppm group) which were above the World Health Organisation (WHO) permissible limit. The mortality data trend of fingerlings exposed to cypermethrin was concentration and duration dependent. The 96 hours LC50 value with 95% confidence limit of C. gariepinus fingerlings exposed to the toxicant was 9.332 ppm ± 0.839, and was significant with a determination coefficient (r2) of 0.88 at P<0.05. The low LC50 value for the fingerlings exposed to the pesticide indicated its high toxicity. In conclusion, contamination of culture water with cypermethrin led to the mortality of C. gariepinus fingerlings and the alteration of the physico-chemical parameters of the culture water. As a result, more similar research should be carried-out involving haemathological, reproductive, histological and other physiological alterations when fishes are exposed to cypermethrin so as to further reveal the toxic and harmful potentials of pesticides.

Open Access Original Research Article

Simple and Rapid Extraction Method for Determination of Carotenoids in the Edible Parts of Vitis vinifera, Vaccinum sect. cyanococcus, Ipomoea batatas and Capsicum annum

Kaliyaperumal Ashokkumar, Arjun Pandiyan, Muthusamy Murugan, M. K. Dhanya, Thiravidamani Sathyan, Paramasivam Sivakumar, Surya Raj

Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/45132

Fruits and vegetables are rich source of carotenoids. The aim of this study was to find out the rapid and simple extraction method for carotenoids in grapes, blueberries, sweet potato and green chilli using HPLC analysis. Four different extraction methods; MeOH:DCM simple [methanol: dichloromethane], MeOH:DCM exhausted, MeOH simple and hexane exhausted were evaluated for the determination of carotenoids. Among them, MeOH: DCM simple has yielded higher in all carotenoids concentrations than the other three methods. Using the MeOH: DCM simple method, lutein was found predominantly in green chilli (12.8 µg g-1) followed by blueberries, sweet potato and grapes. Consequently, β-carotene was rich in sweet potato (69.2 µg g-1). Intake of 100 g sweet potato can provide 96.1% RDA of vitamin A for 9-13 year males and females and 75% RDA for pregnant women. The result of this study could be useful in future pharmacological and nutraceutical research.