Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Hand Help Pressure on Body Sway and Leg Muscle Activity during One-Leg Stance

Yu Uchida, Shin-ichi Demura, Hiroshi Hirai

Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 5, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/42870

Aims: This study aimed to examine the effects of the position and pressure of the hand during hand help on body sway and leg muscle activity during OLS.

Study Design: Fifteen elderly subjects (71.5 ± 3.9 years) performed OLS with and without hand help for 30 s.

Methodology: The test with hand help was performed for six tasks with different hand positions (forward and sideward) and varying amounts of pressure (free, light, and strong). The data of the 14 elderly subjects who performed 30-s OLS were analysed.

Results: Body sway was greater in the light pressure condition than in the free and strong pressure conditions, but only in the forward hand position. It was greater in the forward position than in the sideward position in the free and light pressure conditions. The leg muscles tended to be the most active with light hand help.

Conclusion: Even if the elderly use free and light hand help pressure in sideward hand help, hand help pressure has little effect on postural stability because of sufficient postural stability. However, in the case of forward hand help, using light hand help pressure activates the leg muscles due to the loss of stable posture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sustainable Agricultural Development through Value Addition and Linking of Farmers to Markets in Telangana State of India

Aravazhi Selvaraj, R. V. Karnan, Saikat Datta Majumdar, G. Divya Nancy, Harshavardhan Mane, Priyanka Durgulla, Bhattacharjee Suchiradipta, Adapa Siva Shankar

Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 5, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/45809

Sustainable agricultural development can be ensured by empowering smallholder farmers with inclusive business models that enhance their livelihoods. This paper outlines the interventions by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) in collaboration with Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA), Telangana, to enhance livelihoods of tribal smallholders in Adilabad district of Telangana State, India, by providing value addition opportunities and market linkages. Tiryani, Wankidi and Karameri mandals of Adilabad district of Telangana were selected for the interventions, being some of the most backward regions inhabited by tribals. Data analysis was done using MS Excel software. The interventions focused on providing access to seed, establishing pilot processing units for value addition to pigeon pea, training and capacity building on crop production and handling of processing units and providing market linkages. Efficiency of the processing units and the effect of pre- treatments on milling efficiency was also studied and processing parameters optimized. The interventions helped increase income of farmers by 86 per cent, established two pigeon pea processing units and streamlined the pigeon pea value chain in the region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception of the Status of Iko-Esai Community Forest, Akamkpa Local Government, Cross River State, Nigeria

Atim Ayuk Nchor, Sijeh Agbor Asuk

Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 5, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/42604

Efforts have been made by some communities towards conserving their forest, but deforestation still poses serious problems. Despite efforts to conserve community forest, increasing dependence on the forest is bound to shrink the forest continuously. Thus, findings from the study will strengthen the community’s initiative towards conservation and sustainable management of their forest and provide baseline information for future studies in the study area. The study assessed indigenes perception on the status of Iko Esai Community forest in Akamkpa Local Government Area, Cross River State Nigeria. All four wards of the community were purposively selected for the study. Structured questionnaires were administered to 160 respondents for data collection. Data were analysed using descriptive (table and charts) and inferential statistics with chi-square analysis to test for independence or association at 5% level of significance. The results showed that there was significant (P =.0001) change in the status of the forest from the primary closed forest (69.37%) to the primary open forest (71.87%). The major signals of deforestation in the forest included loss of wildlife (63.1%), increase in temperature (57.5%), climate (65.6%) and low rainfall (56.3%). Anthropogenic activities (60%) were considered as the major driver of deforestation with economic factors (48%) topping the list of categories of these drivers. Agriculture (64.38%) was perceived as the major factor causing loss of forest in the community. The general opinion of respondents considered the provision of alternative livelihoods for the local people supported by the development of the vast ecotourism assets that abound in the community. Therefore, the effort of NGOs should be intensified to promote conservation and increase awareness of the dangers of deforestation in the area. Agroforestry should also be incorporated into the agricultural practice for sustainable management of the forest. Afforestation programmes should be carried out to revive the lost community forest in the area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Incidence of Major Insect Pests on Early Maturing Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] in Relation to Abiotic Factors of Varanasi Region of Indo-Gangetic Plain

Ram Keval, Hanumanth, Sabuj Ganguly, Snehel Chakravarty

Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 5, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/44498

Aim: To study the seasonal incidence pattern of major insect pests on two commonly grown cultivars of pigeonpea.

Study Design: Complete Randomized Block Design.

Place and Duration of Study: Field experiments were conducted at Agriculture Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi during kharif seasons of 2015 and 2016.

Methodology: The pigeonpea crops (cultivars ICPL 87 and UPAS 120) were grown in plots of 10 m X 5 m (50 m2) replicated thrice and the crop fields were kept free from pesticide sprays. Five plants were selected randomly from each plot, and weekly observations of the respective pests were taken through Plant Inspection Method (PIM) starting from 50 per cent flowering stage till maturity of the crop and then correlated with the meteorological data.

Results: The peak infestation by the pod pest borer complex was recorded during the second fortnight of October (44th and 45th standard week) of both the years. Correlation studies indicated that the population of these insect pests (Tur pod bug (C. gibbosa), Legume pod borer (M. vitrata), Tur pod fly (M. obtusa), Legume pod borer (M. vitrata) exhibited a significant positive correlation with maximum and minimum temperature whereas a significant negative correlation was established with relative humidity and rainfall. The multiple regression analysis revealed that variations of different weather variables caused approximately more than 80 per cent variations in the populations of these insect pests in both the cultivars during both years, respectively.

Conclusion: The information on seasonal activity and population dynamics of legume pod borer, tur pod fly and tur pod bug on pigeonpea generated to give an indication about the importance of the different weather parameters in developing weather based forecasting models for successful development and implementation of the pest management strategies against these insect pests of pigeonpea.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Bayesian Binary Logistic Regression Approach in Identifying Factors Associated with Exclusive Breastfeeding Practices at Arba Minch Town, South Ethiopia

Belay Belete Anjullo, Tariku Tesfaye Haile

Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 5, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/46020

Aim: To assess the prevalence and the factors associated with the exclusive breast feeding practices among women with infants less than six months of age at Arba Minch town in order to fill the existing information gap in the area.

Study Design: Community based cross sectional study design and a single stage simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample.

Methodology: A sample of 330 women was determined among mothers with infants less than six months of age using a formula for estimation of single population proportion. Descriptive analysis was used to estimate the prevalence and potential predictors were selected by bivariate analysis using chi-square test of association between exclusive breast feeding practices and each predictor. Bayesian binary logistic regression analysis was employed to identify the factors affecting exclusive breast feeding.

Results: From a sample of 330 women with infants of less than six months of age, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practice was found to be 53.9 %. From binary logistic regression analysis based on the Bayesian 95% credible intervals, age of mothers, mother’s educational status, use of antenatal care service during pregnancy, birth orders of the child, exclusive breastfeeding counseling during pregnancy, use of postnatal care, timely initiation of breastfeeding, and attitude towards breast feeding were found to be statistically significant factors affecting exclusive breastfeeding since the credible intervals of posterior mean given by the MCMC method did not include 0.

Conclusions: Use of antenatal care during pregnancy, counseling about the benefits of exclusive breast feeding during pregnancy, awareness about exclusive breast feeding, timely initiation of breastfeeding and attitude towards breast feeding were factors that affected exclusive breast feeding practices among women.