Advances in Research <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Advances in Research (ISSN: 2348-0394)</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AIR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘research’. By not excluding papers on the basis of subject area, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Advances in Research 2348-0394 Learning Management Systems through Moodle and Google Classroom for Education <p>Information and Communication Technologies have become more prevalent in the last few years and has made a great impact on society. Worldwide, a lot of education programs offer new forms of education that are frequently supported by information and communication technology (ICT) to cater to young minds. E-learning in particular has been adopted by educational institutions all over the world and it is being used as a part of “blended learning” where it is incorporated into systems along with traditional classroom learning. Nowadays, it has become more relevant than ever due to the COVID-19 pandemic that the world is facing. Although these systems differ from classroom learning, they allow easy communication among teachers and students at any time necessary and provide an entire repository for students to use. For teachers, it acts as an environment for creating courses, assignments, giving feedback and grading students. In this paper, two such E-learning platforms namely Moodle and Google Classroom are compared and contrasted based on their usability and simplicity.</p> Sempavalan Vasanth C. S. Sumathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 32 37 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030249 Inventory Management Practices and Operational Performance of Manufacturing Firms in Ghana <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The study examined the effect of different inventory management practices on the operational performance of manufacturing firms in Ghana.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The study adopted the descriptive survey design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was conducted among manufacturing firms within the Accra, Tema and Kumasi metropolises in Ghana between November 2019 and February 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study randomly sampled 152 Procurement and Operations managers and officers from 246 registered manufacturing firms with the Association of Ghana Industries. The manufacturing firms are specifically located within the Accra, Tema and Kumasi metropolises. The study gathered primary data using structured questionnaires of which analysis was done using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools including mean, standard deviation and ordinary least square regression.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Using 114 valid responses, the study found manufacturing firms in Ghana to have high preference for Strategic Supplier Partnership (M=3.63) and Activity Based Costing (M=3.56, whereas they had least preference for Just In Time (M=3.06). The ordinary least square regression analysis showed that all the different inventory management practices: strategic supplier partnership (<em>P</em>=.000), activity based costing (<em>P</em>=.025), vendor managed inventory (<em>P</em>=.008), economic order quantity (<em>P</em>=.19), material resource planning (<em>P</em>=.000) and just in time (<em>P</em>=.009) are significantly and positively associated with operational performance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concluded that inventory management practices especially strategic supplier partnership plays tremendous roles in improving the operational performance levels of manufacturing firms in a developing economy notably Ghana.</p> Richard Kofi Opoku Helen Mawuena Fiati Gregory Kaku Joseph Ankomah Faustina Opoku- Agyemang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 1 18 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030246 Antimicrobial Efficacy of Toothpastes Containing Fluoride against Clinically Isolated Streptococci mutans <p>Dental caries is one of the prevalent oral diseases which affect all ages. Many chemical substances with antimicrobial properties, are effective against microorganisms causing dental caries. The objective of this study was to check the antimicrobial efficacy of some toothpastes&nbsp; found in Enugu metropolis, Nigeria more specifically against clinically isolated <em>Streptococci mutans</em>. The antimicrobial efficacy of different brands of toothpastes marketed in Enugu metropolis&nbsp; was assayed against <em>Streptococci mutans</em> using the agar well diffusion method. The clinical <em>Streptococci mutans</em> used for this study were taken from carious lesions of patients that&nbsp; attended the clinic at Federal College of Dental Therapy and Technology, Trans Ekulu, Enugu, Nigeria and were isolated and cultivated using traditional laboratory methods. The present&nbsp; study has shown that toothpaste which contains mint extract as herbal constituent and sodium fluoride had the highest antimicrobial activity, followed by toothpastes containing only sodium monofluorophosphate. Herbal toothpaste with mint can be a safe and effective alternative in the prevention of dental caries.</p> Eze E. Ajaegbu Calister U. Ezeh Adaobi J. Dieke Adaora L. Onuora Jane I. Ugochukwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-22 2020-09-22 19 24 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030247 FTIR and UV-Visible Spectrophotometric Derivatization Studies of Artemether <p>This study was aimed at confirmation of the purity and identity of the artemether and development of an ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for the assaying of artemether utilizing p-nitroaniline as a derivatizing agent. Melting point and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) methods were used to confirm the purity and identity of the artemether used in the study. The derivatization process was carried out between 100 µg/ml of the artemether and 500 µg/ml of p-nitroaniline in different molarities (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5M) of HCl at 60ºC for 45 mins. The melting point ranged between 86-89ºC and the FTIR determination revealed a band at 3169.978 cm-1 due to O-H stretching vibration and C-H stretching at 2996.039 cm-1. There was no observed difference in wavelength between the p-nitroaniline spectrum and the spectra of the derivatized products in different molarities of HCl. p-nitroaniline may not be a proper derivatization reagent for the assay of artemether in pure or dosage form.</p> Jane I. Ugochukwu Eze E. Ajaegbu Chidinma R. Chukwunwejim Ikemefuna C. Uzochukwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-24 2020-09-24 25 31 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030248 Cause and Effect Relationship in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes under Temperate Conditions <p>Thirty-five genotypes and 3 varieties of chickpea were undertaken to determine the variability, interrelationship among yield and its components and their primary and secondary impact on seed quantity. The research work performed at FoA, Wadura Sopore, SKUAST-Kashmir in the rabi 2017-18. The treatment differences were statistically highly significant for all the traits along with higher magnitude of genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation indicating presence of good amount of variability. The character, plant height showed maximum difference preceding by pod number plant<sup>-1</sup>, days taken to maturity, 50% flowering, seed yield plant<sup>-1</sup>, 100 seed weight, number of secondary and primary branches plant<sup>-1</sup> and seeds pod<sup>-1</sup>. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation have been seen maximum in case of seed yield plant<sup>-1</sup> preceding by plant height, pod number plant<sup>-1</sup>, secondary branch number, seeds pod<sup>-1</sup> and 100-seed weight. Pod number plant<sup>-1</sup>, plant height, days to maturity (99%) exhibited maximum heritability (b.s.) then secondary branches plant<sup>-1</sup>, days to 50% flowering (98%), 100-seed weight, seed yield plant<sup>-1</sup> (96%). Seed yield plant<sup>-1</sup> showed maximum genetic advance as mean% (54.17) then plant height (50.93) and pods per&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; plant<sup>-1</sup> (50.02). The seed yield plant<sup>-1</sup> exhibited significant and positive correlation with pods plant<sup>-1</sup>, secondary branches plant<sup>-1</sup>, seeds pod<sup>-1</sup> and 100-seed weight. By comprehending path coefficient maximum primary effect shown by pods plant<sup>-1</sup> on seed yield plant<sup>-1 </sup>then seeds pod<sup>-1</sup>, 100-seed weight, primary branches plant<sup>-1</sup>.</p> Mohd Aslam Dar Noor-ul-Saleem Khuroo Reyaz-ul-Rouf Mir Zahoor Ahmad Dar Bilal Ahmad Lone Farooq A. Sheikh Umer Rashid Bhat Parvaze Ahmad Sofi Sher A. Dar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-03 2020-10-03 38 45 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030250 Cytological Assessment of Vaginal Epithelial Cells in Undergraduate Females of Reproductive Age in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria <p>This study assessed the vaginal epithelial cells and its relationship with the reproductive hormones as a determinant for fertility. 100 students participated in this cross-sectional study. The established approach to the evaluation of ovarian function and endocrine disorders in the woman is based on serial biochemical analyses of hormones, such as estrogen, progesterone, luteinizing hormones and their metabolites. This study analyzed the ratio of parabasal, intermediate and superficial cells in comparison with the presenting hormones. The biochemical analyses can be effectively supplemented by the old-fashioned endometrial biopsies, or studies of endocervical mucus. In addition, the vaginal smear may sometimes provide useful information and has the advantage of being easy to obtain, rapidly evaluated, and inexpensive. Cytology is the study of cells collected by various means through microscopic examination. In the case of humans, the cytologic approach is particularly valuable if laboratories specializing in endocrine analysis are not readily available. The principle of the cytologic hormonal analysis is simple. The degree of maturation of the squamous epithelium of the female genital tract depends on steroid hormones, mainly estrogen. Various factors contribute to the fertility status of a woman. In the case of this study, age, abortion and use of contraceptives are the significant contributing factors (p &lt;0.05, t &gt;1.96).</p> Adepoju Paul Olusegun Solaja Anuoluwani Adeola Adediji Isaac Nabofa Williams Adepoju Victoria Feyikemi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-06 2020-10-06 46 53 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030251 Exposure to Excessive Sound Volume: A Major Challenge in the South-Western Nigeria Church Auditoria <p>The study examines the exposure to excessive sound volume as a major challenge to grapple with in church auditoria in South-western Nigeria. This exposure to excessive sound has become a source of noise pollution and it is dangerous to human health. Data for this paper were gathered through participant observation of musical acoustics in worship auditoria using a Virtual Instrument; a Sound Pressure Level mobile application installed on a mobile phone for sound volume measurement. The equivalent noise level using A-weighting was taken for twenty minutes per day, this was observed for the three different worship services at different dates and time in each of the selected church auditoria during each worship service. The LAeq, T, of each musical session was calculated. Findings show that the worshippers are exposed to average noise levels of 90.29 dB (Threshold of Pain) at every worship service which is higher than the recommended 60dB for normal human ear by World Health Organization (WHO). It was also observed that all the selected church auditoria lack appropriate acoustic treatment which led to sound reflections and severe echo. The paper concludes that the culture of noise pollution has become a social phenomenon in the Nigerian society especially, in church auditoria where loud musical sound is arrogated to power and domination of space. This paper recommends that acceptable optimal standards for sound production either in enclosures or in open spaces be emphasized by the Nigerian local, state and federal governments to effectively control noise for human and societal wellbeing.</p> Solomon Ikibe Olatunbosun Samuel Adekogbe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 54 65 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030252