Advances in Research 2020-08-11T01:53:52+00:00 Advances in Research Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Advances in Research (ISSN: 2348-0394)</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AIR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘research’. By not excluding papers on the basis of subject area, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Leaf Area, Relative Water Content and Stay-green Habit of Iranian Landraces (Triticum aestivum L.) under Water Stress in Field Conditions 2020-08-10T14:03:53+00:00 Amandeep Kaur Rashpal Singh Sarlach <p>Water stress is one of the major and challenging abiotic stress that affects the plant mostly at all stages like tillering, booting, anthesis, grain formation and grain filling. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of water stress on relative water content, leaf area and stay green habit of Iranian landraces along with commercial relevant checks under irrigated, restricted irrigation and rain-fed conditions. Iranian landraces were selected based on minimum reduction in vigor index as compared to control lines during preliminary screening experiment in the lab in which water stress is induced by Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000). A field experiment was carried out at the experimental area of the Department of Plant Breeding &amp; Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab during 2016-2017. The relative water content of Iranian landraces was calculated at the bolting stage according to the turgid weight by applying the equation of relative water content. Leaf area was recorded by leaf area meter and stay-green habit based on a 1-4 visual scale. Analysis of variance revealed interaction among treatment and genotypes was significant <em>(P≤ 0.05) </em>for the leaf area, relative water content, stay green habit at anthesis and 30 days after anthesis. Leaf area, relative water content and stay green habit of Iranian landraces along with commercial checks reduced under water stress conditions. Based on the performance of Iranian landraces under stress conditions, 5 lines IWA 8600397, IWA 8600567, 8606739, IWA 8606786 and IWA 8600753 were considered as water stress tolerant.</p> 2020-07-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Novel Compartmental Model for Analysis and Projection of COVID-19 Dynamics in Bangladesh 2020-08-10T14:03:53+00:00 Md. Mijanur Rahman Md. Sadekur Rahman Rani <p>A novel compartmental model is proposed to project the COVID-19 dynamics in Bangladesh. The exposed population is divided into two classes: tested and not tested. Model parameters are estimated by fitting the output with empirical COVID-19 data of Bangladesh from 7 April 2020 to 15 June 2020. It is found that even if 90% of exposed individuals are tested, number of unidentified cases (recovered or dead) is 3 to 4 times than that of identified cases. As of 15 June 2020, Bangladesh is using the Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) based test to detect the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The impact of false negative rate of this test on unidentified infection is analyzed. It is found that the year-end total recoveries (deaths) surges 700 (800) times if the false negative rate is doubled. Periodic lockdown and relaxation intervals are incorporated by defining the effective contact rate (<em>β</em>) as a periodic function of time. Impact of lockdown is perspicuous from the periodic fluctuation of the basic reproduction number ( ). It is observed that a 90-day-lockdwon reduces the final outcome by 3% while a 30-day-lockdwon increases it by 2%. On other hand, casualties are 10 to 100 times worse in case of no lockdown even with less than half effective contact rate. Analysis of strictness of isolation reveals that a 12.5% increase in the strictness coefficient reduces the exposed population 2.5 times whereas a 37.5% decrease in it intensifies the outcome nearly 9 times. Projections up to 6 April 2021 suggests that the epidemic will reach its peak in Bangladesh in August 2020.</p> 2020-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Water Quality of Odor River, Anambra State 2020-08-11T01:53:52+00:00 Godspower Onyekachukwu Ekwueme Charles Okechukwu Aronu Nkechi Udochukwu Otty <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study examined the physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of Odor River in Orumba North, Anambra State. The parameters considered were pH, turbidity, temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Alkalinity, total hardness, Sulphate ( ), Chloride, Calcium ( ) hardness, Magnesium ( ) hardness, Iron (Fe), Nitrate&nbsp; (NO<sub>3</sub>-), Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli).&nbsp; The objectives of the study were to assess the similarities that exist amongst the physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of Odor River in Orumba North, Anambra State. Also, to test whether water from Odor river is safe for drinking by the people of Orumba North and its environs.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The Cluster analysis and the one-sample T-test method were used to analyze the data obtained for this study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings of the study revealed that the parameters can be grouped in two groups as follows: group A consists of pH, turbidity, temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Alkalinity, total hardness, Sulphate ( ), Chloride, Calcium ( ) hardness, Magnesium ( ) hardness, Iron (Fe), Nitrate&nbsp; (NO<sub>3</sub>-), and Conductivity while group B consists of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total coliform and E.coli. The physicochemical parameters were found to impact significantly on the variation of the water quality at 5% significant level and their measures did not exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) standard. Further findings revealed that the bacteriological parameters such as the Escherichia Coli and Total Coliform do not significantly impact on the water quality variation of the river and their measures do not exceed the WHO standard.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of Odor River were found to be within the WHO Standard. However, the physicochemical parameters were found to impact on the water quality variation of the river while the bacteriological parameters do not impact on the variation of the water quality of the river. The implication of the physicochemical and bacteriological parameters not exceeding the WHO standard indicates no risk for the users of the river. Hence, water from Odor River is safe for human consumption and agricultural purposes.</p> 2020-08-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Potential Review on Palmyra (Borassus flabellifer L.) 2020-08-10T14:03:52+00:00 T. R. Sridevi Krishnaveni R. Arunachalam M. Chandrakumar G. Parthasarathi R. Nisha <p>The state tree of Tamil Nadu, <em>Borassus flabellifer</em> L. is a nature’s gift to the mankind. It is plant that serves various ecological, medicinal, economical and sociological benefits to the society. It a plant of heaven that could sustain adverse climatic conditions and withstand natural calamities. It is one among the most beneficial species that has economical and medicinal value for each and every part. It found widely in tropical and arid countries ranging from India through South-East Asia to New Guinea. The plant has a very close connection with the rural livelihood and cottage and agro based industries of Indian economy. The utility of the plant could be widely classified into Non-edible, edible and value addition based uses. This paper attempts to give a birds eye view about palmyra’s distribution, nutritional and medicinal properties, different utility forms and the impact on rural livelihood.</p> 2020-08-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##