Advances in Research 2021-10-18T12:46:53+00:00 Advances in Research Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Advances in Research (ISSN: 2348-0394)</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AIR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘research’. By not excluding papers on the basis of subject area, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Mobile Phone Usage on Change of Athletes Sleep Behaviour because of COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown in India 2021-10-11T02:16:48+00:00 W. Vinu Aranga. Panbilnathan <p>Many researchers during several decades have proved that sleep is a key factor for enhancing performance in sports. Henceforth, this study is to investigate the impact of a mobile phone on changes in athletes sleep behaviour because of COVID-19 lockdown in India. For which, the survey conducted among 550 sports persons representing various Universities (300 male/250 female) across various states of India using simple random sampling technique, and Sleep Quality Assessment (PSQ: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) was used to find out the level of sleep disturbance in athletes. The composed data were analysed using a percentile. The results of this study showed that the mobile phone usage during COVID-19 lockdown in India out of 550 athletes’ data was collected in which 6.4 ⸓ of athletes with a score of 4 in the scale were not distracted due to COVID-19 lock down they underwent regular sleeping schedule there was no change in their circadian rhythm, 40.4 ⸓ of athletes with a score of 6 which means there was a high level of distraction in sleep due to COVID-19 lock down and 23⸓ of the athletes suffered a very high level of sleep destruction during COVID-19 lock down. Which showed a changed sleep behaviour of sports persons.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and Recommendations:</strong> Lack of exercise during COVID-19 lockdown changed the sleep behaviour in athletes. Which made an addiction towards mobile phone usage. This study concludes that regular exercise enhances sleep and also keeps athletes from over usage of mobile phones.</p> 2021-10-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Toxic Potentials of Methamphetamine in Neuroblastoma Cell Line and its Effects on the Mitochondrial Activity 2021-10-18T12:46:53+00:00 Xolisile Mokoena Olufemi A. Alamu <p>The cytotoxicity potentials of methamphetamine (METH) is presumably associated with oxidative stress induced apoptosis, this study therefore, investigated the toxic potentials of METH in neuroblastoma cells and further determined it effects on the mitochondrial activity.</p> <p>Human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE (2) cells cultured in DMEM/F12 were used in this study. The cells were treated acutely with methamphetamine (1, 5, 10, 20, and 50 µg/mL) over 24, and were allowed to recover from METH treatment over 48, 72, and 96 h. Cell viability study was done with Trypanblue exclusion assay. The cell proliferative characteristics of the neuroblastoma cell line were investigated by constructinga cell proliferation curve. Mitochondrial activity was assessed using the XTT Assay. Statistical analysis were done with Graph Pad prism and significant difference were considered at p&lt;0.001, 0.01 and 0.05.</p> <p>The result showed normal growth in the untreated neuroblastoma cell over the 96 h of monitoring. Following treatment with METH, significant decrease in cell growth was observed when treated acutely with 5 and 10 µg/mL METH and allowed till 72 and 96 h recovery period. The SK-N-BE (2) treated with increasing concentration of METH showed no significant difference in cell viability over the recovery period from METH exposure. Toxicity of SK-N-BE (2) cells was only observed when treated with 10 µg/mL of METH. Significant decrease in mitochondria activity was observed when the cells were treated with 5, 10, 20, and 50 µg/mL METH and allowed till 72 h recovery.</p> <p>The result showed that METH is cytotoxic to the SK-N-BE (2) cells and the mechanism of toxicity might be associated with inhibition of mitochondrial activity.</p> 2021-10-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Natural Products: Are They Efficient Alternatives against the Stored Grain Pest Sitophilus zeamais? 2021-10-14T01:54:21+00:00 Alice Ribeiro Cavalcante Eva Luana Almeida da Silva Panait Abu Nidal Alves dos Santos Hanna Gracie Inez de Freitas Lima Welton Aaron de Almeida Emmanuel Viana Pontual Ardilles Juan Carlos Alves dos Santos <p>Cereal crops strongly contribute with the world economy and because of this the reduction of their productivity may lead to irreparable economic consequences worldwide. The maize weevil<em> Sitophilus zeamais</em> is the main pest of maize in the field or during processing, storage and commercialization of grains, also attacking processed food. The population control of <em>S. zeamais</em> uses a restrict panel of synthetic insecticides which are associated with environmental contamination, selection of resistant individuals and toxicity to non-target organisms, including humans and other animals. This scenario has stimulated the search for new insecticides and plant metabolites stand out because of their high degree of biodegradability and more selective toxicity. This work provides a review of the effect of plant compounds on <em>S. zeamais</em> to encourage the use of these ingredients in more ecofriendly strategies for pest control. Plant insecticides can exert their toxicity by ingestion, contact and/or fumigation resulting in damage to the development, survival and reproductive potential of <em>S. zeamais</em>, or may present food deterrent activity, which protects the substrates from the attack by the insects. The data reviewed contribute to consolidate the use of natural products in control of <em>S. zeamais</em>.</p> 2021-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##