Advances in Research 2022-05-09T04:01:17+00:00 Advances in Research Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Advances in Research (ISSN: 2348-0394)</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AIR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘research’. By not excluding papers on the basis of subject area, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Annexin A2 versus Alpha-Fetoprotein in Diagnosing Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Diagnostic Meta-Analysis 2022-05-09T04:00:48+00:00 Erick Thokerunga Abdullahi Omar Ahmed Mbasani Rogious <p><strong>Background:</strong> Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) remains widely used for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) despite its low sensitivity and specificity. Recently, Annexin A2, a highly expressed protein in HCC and almost undetectable in normal liver cells has been studied as a potential alternative.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To synthesize evidence for the diagnostic accuracy of annexin A2 as an alternative to AFP in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (chkd-cnki) databases were searched without time constraints up to 2022. Meta-analysis was conducted using Meta-Disc software.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 6 studies were meta-analyzed. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for Annexin A2 were 84% [95% CI :( 80 – 87)], and 78% [95% CI :( 71 – 84)] respectively, while AFP was 70% [95% CI :( 66 – 74)] and 79% [95% CI :( 72 – 85)] respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio was 20.35 [95% CI :( 9.76 – 42.42)] for Annexin A2, and 9.71 [95% CI :( 5.27 – 17.88)] for AFP. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.88 for Annexin A2 and 0.82 for AFP.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Annexin A2 is significantly more sensitive than AFP for HCC diagnosis but less specific. A combination of Annexin A2 and AFP could improve accuracy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-05-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Academic Interest and Self-esteem as Correlates of Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement in English Language in Nigeria 2022-05-09T04:01:17+00:00 Akuezuilo, J. A. Mbachu, C. U. Akunne, L. I. <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study examined academic interest and self-esteem as correlates of secondary school students’ academic achievement in English language in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Correlational survey</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Anambra State, Nigeria, conducted between December 2021 and March 2022.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The accessible population for this study comprises 18,297 senior secondary school two SS2 students from 261 secondary schools situated in the six education zones in Anambra state, the sampling technique adopted was the proportionate stratified random sampling technique. This was use to select 2,160 SS 2 students. The instruments adopted for data collection are: students’ academic interest scale, self-esteem scale and students’ academic achievement scores in English language. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression Analysis were statistical tools adopted for data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Table 1, 2 and 3 revealed a moderate positive relationship between secondary school students’ academic interest, self-esteem jointly with their academic achievement in English language. Similarly, hypothesis in Table 4, 5 and 6 reports that at 0.05 level of significance and 2158df, the t-test statistic value 15.95 with a Pvalue of 0.00 is less than 0.05, hence the second hypotheses is rejected. This implies that the relationship existing between self-esteem and academic achievement of secondary school students in English language in Anambra State is significant. Furthermore, at 0.05 level of significance 3df numerator and 2045df denominator, the F statistics value 314.12, with Pvalue of 0.00 is less than 0.05, the third null hypothesis is rejected. This goes to show that the relationship existing among secondary school students’ academic interest and self-esteem jointly with academic achievement in English language is significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study concludes that the joint relationship existing among academic interest, self-esteem jointly with the academic achievement of secondary school students in English language was reported to be moderate and also positive. This implies that the coefficient was close to 1.00 (perfect relationship). Justifying this, it could be likened to the fact that students only spend 45 to 90 minutes per day in school with each teacher, so it is nearly impossible for them to unconsciously transmit all of the knowledge they need to get to them within that time frame. So therefore, there is need for parents as well to fulfil their first job, which is to be a teacher to their children. In the same vein, the relationship existing among secondary school students’ academic interest and self-esteem jointly with academic achievement in English language is statistically significant.</p> 2022-05-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##