Bioaccesibility of Trace Elements in Different Oyster Mushroom Varieties Grown in Kenya

Rachel Nambafu

Chemistry Department, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box-43844 - 00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

Judith Waudo

Chemistry Department, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box-43844 - 00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

Margaret Nganga

Chemistry Department, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box-43844 - 00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

Peter Lusi

Chemistry Department, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box-43844 - 00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

Hudson Nyambaka *

Chemistry Department, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box-43844 - 00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Trace elements, especially chromium (Cr), vanadium (V) and selenium (Se) have potential beneficial effects on glucose metabolism in people with type 2 diabetes. Food products incorporating mushrooms are not only a good source of such nutrients but are thought to have readily bioavailable nutrients. Nutritional efficacy of food products may be ensured by accessing bioaccessibility of nutrients, which provides valuable information on matrix and appropriate dosage. The study determined bioaccessible  Cr, V and Se in four varieties of oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus (PO), Pleurotus sajor-caju (PS), Pleurotus pulmonarius (PP) and Pleurotus citrinopileatus (PC) grown in Kenya. Bioaccessibility was estimated using in vitro simulated gastrointestinal procedure, while nutrient levels were determined using atomic absorption procedure. Bioaccessible levels of chromium ranged from 26.56% in PS to 78.50% in PC; selenium from 92.52% in PC to ND inPS and PP; and vanadium from92.46% in PC to 69.95% in PP. Vanadium was the most bio accessible than the other elements in the four oyster mushrooms, while chromium was the most bio accessible  in the PC variety.

Keywords: Bioaccessibility, oyster mushrooms varieties, vanadium, chromium, selenium

How to Cite

Nambafu , Rachel, Judith Waudo, Margaret Nganga, Peter Lusi, and Hudson Nyambaka. 2023. “Bioaccesibility of Trace Elements in Different Oyster Mushroom Varieties Grown in Kenya”. Advances in Research 24 (4):29-37.


Download data is not yet available.


Heaney RP. Factors influencing the measurement of bioavailability taking calcium as a model. J Nutr. 2001;131(4);Suppl:1344S-8S.

Onyambu ZM, Nawiri MP, Nyambaka HN, Noah NM. In vitro bioaccessibility of the vitamin B series from thermally processed leafy African indigenous vegetables. J Food Qual. 2021;2021:1-8. Available:

Nambafu R, Swaleh S, Nyambaka H. Bioavailability studies of vitamin A and E in indigenous vegetables and their potential use in the management of HIV and AIDS. Adv Res. 2021;22(2):36-44.

Guerra A, Etienne-Mesmin L, Livrelli V, Denis S, Blanquet-Diot S, Alric M. Relevance and challenges in modeling human gastric and small intestinal digestion. Trends Biotechnol. 2012;30(11): 591-600.

Lusi P, Nyambaka H, Mbakaya CF, Maseta E, Bwete V, Murungi J. Bioavailability studies of trace elements in a potential food formulation for use in the management of HIV and AIDS. Int J Pure Appl Chem. 2013;8(1):47-53.

Wienk KJ, Marx JJ, Beynen AC. The concept of iron bioavailability and its assessment. Eur J Nutr. 1999;38(2):51-75.

Etcheverry P, Grusak MA, Fleige LE. Application of in vitro bioaccessibility andbioavailability methods for calcium, carotenoids, folate, iron, magnesium, polyphenols, zinc, and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E. Front Physiol. 2012;3:1-21.

Courraud J, Berger J, Cristol JP, Avallone S. Stability and Bioaccessibility of different forms of carotenoids and vitamin A during in-vitro digestion. Food Chem. 2013;1362: 871-7.

Fernández-García E, Carvajal-Lérida I, Pérez-Gálvez A. In vitro bioaccessibility assessment as a prediction tool of nutrient efficiency. Nutr Res. 2009;29(11):751-60.

Nawiri MP, Nyambaka HN, Murungi JI. Sundried cowpeas and Amaranthus leaves recipe improves beta-carotene and retinol in serum and hemoglobin concentration among preschool children. Eur J Nutr. 2013;52(2):582-9.

Bano Z. Nutritive value of Indian mushrooms and medicinal practices. Eco Bot. 1976;31:367-71.

Samsudin NP, Abdullah.N. Edible mushrooms from Malaysia: a literature review on their nutritional and medicinal properties. Int Food Res J. 2019;26(1): 11-31.

Kalač P. A review of chemical composition and nutritional value of wild growing and cultivated mushrooms. J Sci Food Agric. 2013;93(2):209-18.

Li H, Tian Y, Menolli J, Ye L, Karunarathna SC, Perezmoreno J, Rahmn MM, Rashid MH, Phengsintham P, Rizal L, Kasuya T. Reviewing the worlds edible mushroom species: a new evidence-based classification system.Compre Rev Food Sci. 2021;20(2):1982-2014.

Murugesan S. Sustainable food security-edible and medicinal mushroom. Sustainable Agriculture towards food security. Singapore. Springers. 2017: 185-96.

Chang S, Wasser S. The cultivation and environmental impact of mushroom. Vol. P43. New York: Oxford University Press; 2017.

Ho LH, Zulkifli NA, Tan TC. Edible mushrooms: nutritional properties potential nutraceutical values in food product development. An introduction to mushroom. London: In tech Open. 2020;19-36.

Kalac P, Svoboda L. A review of trace element concentrations in edible mushrooms. Food Chem. 2000;69(3): 273-81.

Aletor V. Compositional studies on edible tropical species of mushrooms. Food Chem. 1995;54(3):265-8.

Mattila P, Könkö K, Eurola M, Pihlava JM, Astola J, Vahteristo L et al. Contents of vitamins, mineral elements, and some phenolic compounds in cultivated mushrooms. J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49(5):2343-8.

Rudawska M, Leski T. Macro and micro elemental contents in fruiting bodies of wild mushrooms from the Netecka forest in west – central Poland. Food Chem. 2005;92(3):499-506.

Ganesan K, Xu B. Anti-obesity effects of medicinal and edible mushrooms. Molecules. 2018;23(11):2880.

Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, Polansky MM, Cheng N, Chi J et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46(11):1786-91.

Shechter Y. Insulin-mimetic effects of vanadate. Possible implications for future treatment of diabetes. Diabetes. 1990; 39(1):1-5.

Shamberger RJ. The insulin-like effects of vanadium. J Adv Med. 1996;9:121-31.

Akbaraly TN, Arnaud J, Rayman MP, Hininger-Favier I, Roussel AM, Berr C et al..A. Plasma selenium and risk of dysglycemia in an elderly French population: results from the prospective epidemiology of Vascular Ageing Study. Nutr Metab Lond. 2010;18: 71-121.

Becker DJ, Reul B, Ozcelikay AT, Buchet JP, Henquin JC, Brichard SM. Oral selenate improves glucose homeostasis and partly reverses abnormal expression of liver glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes in diabetic rats. Diabetologia. 1996;39(1):3-11.

WHO. Geneva: World Health Organization [guideline]: sodium intake for adults and children; 2012.

Rajarathnam S, Shashirekha MN. Mushroom nutraceuticals,” inAdvances in preservation and processing technologiesof fruits and vegetables. New Delhi, India: New India Publishing Agency; 2011.

Crews HM, Clarke PA, Lewis DJ, Owen LM, Strutt PR, Izquierdo A. Investigation of selenium speciation in vitro gastrointestinal extracts of cooked cod by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. J Anal At Spectrom. 1996;11(12):1177-82.

Miller JC, Miller JN. Statistic for Analytical chemistry. 2nd ed, Ellis Horwood limited publisher. Chichester; 1988.

Patil SS, Ahmed SA, Telong SM, Baig MMV. The nutritive values of pleurotusostreatuscultivaters of different agro wastes. Innov Romenian Food Biotechnol. 2010;7:66-76.

Yang JH, Lin HC, Mau JL. Non-volatile taste components of several commercial mushrooms. Food Chem. 2001;72(4):465-71.

Ahmed SA, Kadam JA, Mane VP. Biological efficiency and nutritional contents of Pleurotus florida. Singer cultivated on different agro-wastes. Nat Sci. 2009;7(1):44-8.

Alam N, Amin R, Khan A, Ara I, Shim MJ, Lee MW et al. Nutritional analysis of cultivated mushrooms in Bangladesh -Pleurotusostreatus, Pleurotussajorcaju, Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica. Mycobiology. 2008;36(4):228-32.

Gosh N, Chakravarty DK. Predictive analysis of the protein quality of Pleurotuscitrinopileatus. J Food Sci Technol. 1990;27(4):236-8.

Gąsecka M, Mleczek M, Siwulski M, Niedzielski P. Phenolic composition and antioxidant propertiesof Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus eryngii enriched with selenium and zinc. Eur Food Res Technol. 2016;242(5):723-32.

Kortei NK, Wiafe-Kwagyan M. Comparative appraisal of the total phenolic content, flavonoids, free radical scavenging activity and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (EM-1) and Pleurotusostreous(P-31) cultivated on rice (Oryzae sativa) straw in Ghana. J Advbiol Biotechnol. 2015;3(4):153-64.

Jegadeesh R, Lakshmanan H, Kabyeul J. Cultivation of pink oyster mushroomPleurotusdjamor var. roseus on various agro-residues by low cost technique. J Mycopathol Res. 2018;56(3): 213-20.

Ijeh I, Okwujiako IA, Nwosu PC. Phytochemical composition of Pleurotus tuber regium and effect of its dietary incorporation on body weights and serum triacylgycerols in albino mice. J Med Plants Res. 2009;3(11):939-43.

Humaloja T, Mykkänen HM. Intestinal absorption of 75Se-labeled sodium selenite and Selemethionine in chicks: effects of time segment selenium concentration and method of measurement. J Nutr. 1986;116(1): 142-8.

Durcos V, Arnanda J, Tahiri M, Coudray C, Baratt.F.,Bouteloipdemange C, Brown F, Rayssiguier Y, Roussel AM. . Influence of Short- Chain Fracto Oligosaccharides on Absorption of Cu, Zn and Se in Healthy Postmenopausal Women. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 2005;24:30-37.

Thompson CD, Burton CE, Robinson MF. On supplementing the selenium intake of New Zealander. Short experiments with large doses of selenite or selenomethionine. Br J Nutr. 1978;39: 587-97.

Finley JW. The retention and distribution by healthy young men of stable isotopes of selenium consumed as selenite, selenate or hydroponically, brown broccoli dependent on the isotopic form. J Nutr. 1999;129(4):865-71.

Ardüser F, Wolffram S, Scharrer E. Active absorption of selenate by rat ileum. J Nutr. 1985;115(9):1203-8.

Hur SJ, Lim BO, Decker EA, McClements DJ. In vitro human digestion models for food applications. Food Chem. 2011;125(1):1-12.

Rayman MP, Infante HG, Sargent M. Food-chain selenium and human health: spotlight on speciation. Br J Nutr. 2008;100(2):238-53.

Serafin Muñoz AH, Kubachka K, Wrobel K, Gutierrez Corona JF, Yathavakilla SK, Caruso JA et al. Se-enriched mycelia of Pleurotus ostreatus: distribution of selenium in cell walls and cell membranes/cytosol. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54(9):3440-4.

Chansler MW, Mutanen M, Morris VC, Levander OA. Nutritional bioavailability to rats of selenium in Brazil nuts and mushrooms. Nutr Res. 1986;6(12):1419-28.

Mutanen M. Bioavailability of selenium in mushrooms, Boletus edulis, to young women. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1986;56(3):297-301. PMID 3781756.

Tang C, Hoo PC, Tan LT. Golden needle mushroom: a culinary medicine with evidenced-based biological activities and health promoting properties. Front Pharmacol. 2006;7:474.

Curran GL, Azarnoff DL, Bolinger RE. J Clin Invest. 1990;38:1251-126.

Byrne AR, Kosta L. Vanadium in foods and in human body fluids and tissues. Sci.J. Nutr. 1978;115:1203-8.

Nielsen FH. Trace Minerals in foods. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1988. p. 357-428.

Nielsen FH, Uthus EO 1990. Vanadium in biological systems. Physiology and biochemistry. Kluwer. London: Academic Press.51-62.

Patterson BW, Hansard II, Ammerman R, Henry LA, Zech, Fisher WR. Am J Physiol. 1986;251:325-32.

Feng W, Li B, Liu J, Chai Z, Zhang P, Gao Y et al. Study of chromium-containing proteins in sub cellular fractions of rat liver by enriched stable isotopic tracer technique and gel filtration chromatography. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2003; 375(3):363-8.

Dowling HJ, Offenbacher EG, Pi-Sunyer FX. Absorption of inorganic trivalent chromium from the vascular perfused rat small intestine. J Nutr. 1989;119(8): 1138-45.

European Commission. Opinion of the scientific committee on food on the tolerable; 2003. Upper Intake Level of Trivalent Chromium (expressed on 4 April 2003). Available: (access: 2010.04.29).

Anderson RA, Bryden NA, Polansky MM, Gautschi K. Dietary chromium effects on tissue chromium concentrations and chromium absorption in rats. J Trace Elem Exp Med. 1996;9(1):11-25.

Ohh SJ, Lee JY. Dietary chromium-methionine chelate supplementation and animal performance. Asian Australas J Anim Sci. 2005;18(6):898-907.

Wang MQ, He YD, Lindemann MD, Jiang ZG. Efficacy of Cr (III) supplementation on growth, carcass composition, blood metabolites, and endocrine parameters in finishing pigs. Asian Australas J Anim Sci. 2009;22(10):1414-9.

Zha LY, Xu ZR, Wang MQ, Gu LY. Effects of chromium nanoparticle dosage on growth, body composition, serum hormones and tissue chromium in Sprague-Dawley rats. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2007;8(5):323-30.

Chen NS, Tsai A, Dyer IA. Effect of chelating agents on chromium absorption in rats. J Nutr. 1973;103(8):1182-6.

Davis ML, Seaborn CD, Stoecker BJ. Effects of over-the-counter drugs on chromium retention and urinary excretion in rats. Nutr Res. 1995;15(2):201-10.

Offenbacher EG. Promotion of chromium absorption by ascorbic acid. Trace Elem Elect. 1994;11:178-81.

Samanta S, Haldar S, Ghosh TK. Production and carcase traits in broiler chickens given diets supplemented with inorganic trivalent chromium and an organic acid blend. Br Poult Sci. 2008;49(2):155-63.

Hill CH. Mineral interrelationships. Trace elements in human health and disease. New York: Academic Press. 1976;281-300.

Ducros V. Chromium metabolism, a literature review. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1992;32:65-77.

Anderson RA, Bryden NA, Polansky MM, Richards MP. Chromium supplementation of turkeys: effects on tissue chromium. J Agric Food Chem. 1989;37(1):131-4.

Dennis Chasteen ND. The biochemistry of vanadium. Struct Bond. 1983;53:105-38.

Chen J, Gaikwad V, Holmes M, Murray B, Povey M, Wang Y et al. Development of a simple model device for in vitro gastric digestion investigation. Food Funct. 2011;2(3-4):174-82.

Combs JR. Selenium in global food systems. Br J Nutr. 2001;85:1517-547.

Gao Y, Walder K, Sunderland T, Kantham L, Feng HC, Quick M et al. Elevation in Tanis expression alters glucose metabolism andinsulin sensitivity in H4IIE cells. Diabetes. 2003;52(4):929-34.

Kustin K, Macara IG. The new biochemistry of vanadium. Comments Inorg Chem. 1982;2(1-2):1-22.

Silva SO, Costa SMG, Clemente E. Chemicalcomposition of Pleurotus pulmonarius, substrates and residue after cultivation. Braz Arch Biol Technol. 2002;45(4):531-5.

Suzuki KT, Doi C, Suzuki N. Metabolism of 76Se-methylselenocysteine compared with that of 77Se-selenomethionine and 82Se-selenite. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006; 217(2):185-95.

Thomson CD. Selenium speciation in human body fluids. Analyst. 1998;123(5): 827-31.

Whanger PD. Selenocompounds in plants and animals and their biological significance. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21(3): 223-32.

Whanger PD. Selenium and its relationship to cancer: an update. Br J Nutr. 2004;91(1):11-28.

Yoneda S, Suzuki KT. Detoxification of mercury by selenium by binding of equimo-lar. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997;143(2): 274-80.