Main Article Content
The study examines the exposure to excessive sound volume as a major challenge to grapple with in church auditoria in South-western Nigeria. This exposure to excessive sound has become a source of noise pollution and it is dangerous to human health. Data for this paper were gathered through participant observation of musical acoustics in worship auditoria using a Virtual Instrument; a Sound Pressure Level mobile application installed on a mobile phone for sound volume measurement. The equivalent noise level using A-weighting was taken for twenty minutes per day, this was observed for the three different worship services at different dates and time in each of the selected church auditoria during each worship service. The LAeq, T, of each musical session was calculated. Findings show that the worshippers are exposed to average noise levels of 90.29 dB (Threshold of Pain) at every worship service which is higher than the recommended 60dB for normal human ear by World Health Organization (WHO). It was also observed that all the selected church auditoria lack appropriate acoustic treatment which led to sound reflections and severe echo. The paper concludes that the culture of noise pollution has become a social phenomenon in the Nigerian society especially, in church auditoria where loud musical sound is arrogated to power and domination of space. This paper recommends that acceptable optimal standards for sound production either in enclosures or in open spaces be emphasized by the Nigerian local, state and federal governments to effectively control noise for human and societal wellbeing.
Olatunji MO. The Indigenization of Military Music in Nigeria: Issues and Perspectives, International Journal of African Culture, Politics and Development. 2008;(2):63-72.
Olaniyan Y. Yoruba Dundun Musical Practice, Nigerian Music Review. Special Edition. 2008;(2):32-47.
Smith RA. Possible causes of woodwind tone colour, Journal of Sound Vibrations. 1997;32:347-358
Emielu Austin. Nigerian highlife music: Nigeria, Centre for Black and African Arts and Civilization (CBAAC). 2013;45-56.
Aldred John. Manual of sound recording, london: fountain press, ‘Am I Too Loud?’ Journal of Audio Engineering Soc. 1978;(25):60-78.
Vorländer M. Auralization, fundamentals of acoustics, modeling, simulation, algorithms and acoustic virtual reality: Berlin, Springer-Verlag. 2008;118-201.
Sandell GJ. Roles for spectral centroid and other factors in determining blended instrument pairings orchestration. Music Perception. 1995;13(2):209-246.
Buglio D. Why is church sound so confusing? ; 1992.Retrieved November 15, 2016
from website JdB Sound, Acoustic. Lab. Available:http://www.jdbsound.com/art/art509.htm. Canada: John Wiley & Son, Inc.
Sreedhar ED. Tempo and beat analysis of acoustic musical signals.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 2000;103(1):115-210.
Benade AH. Fundamentals of musical acoustics: Oxford, Oxford University Press; 1990.
Airo Erkko J, Pekkarinen P, Olkinuora. Listening to music with earphones: An assessment of noise exposure, Acustica– Acta Acustica.1996;82:885– 894.
Smith RA., Mercer DMA. Possible causes of woodwind tone colour, Journal of Sound Vibrations. 1994; 32:347-358.
Schaffer AH. Noise and its effects: Administrative Conference of the United States Journal (ACUSJO). 1997;4(2):265-288.
Enendu LOM. Sound Recording in Theatre Planning and Installation. Ibadan: Kraft Books. 1994;87-102.
Schmuziger N. An assessment of threshold shifts in nonprofessional pop/rock
Musicians using conventional and extended high-frequency audiometry. Ear Hear. 2007;28(5):643-648
Anderton Craig. Home Recording for Musicians. New York: Amsco Publications.1978;8-10
Oyedepo SO. Saadu AA. Evaluation and analysis of noise levels in ilorin metropolis, Nigeria Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2010; 160:563-577.
Siebein W, Kinzey Y. Architectural Acoustics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York. 1999;233-304:72-91
Arthur M. Noxon PE. Auditorium Acoustics A three-part article originally featured in Church & Worship Technology. 2002;600-610
Ashare PO. Impact of noise and air Pollution on pregnancy outcomes. 2014, www. US National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health; 1991.accessed on April 22, 2016
Baron MJ. Africa and Christianity in the Threshold of the Third Millennium: The Religious Dimension, African Affairs; 2005;576-578.
Patynen L. Subjective reverberation time and its relation to sound decay. Kongregber. 5. ICA, Liege; 2009.
Ikibe S, Babarinde. Religious transformation: Critical issues in the secularization of Gospel music in Nigeria. A paper presented at the crossroads in African Studies Conference (Brazil Africa) at the department of African studies and Anthropology Centre of West African Studies, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom; 2013.
Sivian BJ. The Acoustical Foundations of Music. 2nd ed., Chap. 12. Norton, New York; 1981.
Sivian BJ. The Acoustical Foundations of Music," 2nd ed., Chap. 12. Norton, New York; 1981.
Gaver WW. How do we hear in the world: Los Angelis, Explorations in ecological acoustics, Ecological Psychology. 1993;64-94
Gracyk ND. Noise control in buildings: a guide for Architects and Engineers. New York McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1996.
Gomery DK. Noise control in buildings: a guide for Architects and Engineers. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc; 1995.
Adesiya, Mikye. An introduction to music management: South Africa, Dolly Publishers Limited. 2005;40-62.
Nagata M. Church acoustics, Nagata Acoustics News. 2001;01-9:165.
McAdams S. Bregman A. Hearing musical streams. Computer Music Journal. 1979;3(4):26- 60.
Thèberge Paul. Any sound you can imagine: Making Music /Consuming technology: Middletown Connecticut, Wesleyan University Press. 1999;67-85.
Rosch DT. Acoustics of bar percussion instruments. Percussive Notes. 1978;19(3).
Georg von Békésy. Audiology and the cochlea: Mayo Clin. Proc; 1938.
Brown SD. Time-domain simulation of sound production in the brass instrument; 1992.
Bruce SW. Pitch discrimination of diotic and dichotic tone complexes: harmonic resolvability or harmonic number? Journal of Acoustics Society of America. 1997;11(3):179-189.
Greenwood AC. Musicians ideas about room acoustic qualities. University of Denmark Report; 2009. Retrieved from University of Denmark. Available:www.universityofdenmark.com
United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)
United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA
Hartmann WM. Pitch, Periodicity and the Brain. Journal of Acoustical Society of America. 1996;94(A):2457-2483.
Trevor JC, D'Antonio P. Acoustic absorbers and diffusers: Theory, design and application. (pp. 2243-2257). Taylor & Francis, London, N.Y; 2009.
Environ Health Perspectives: 2007; A536–A537.
Theodore C. Grame. Folk Music; Journal of America's Ethnic Music. 2012;132-140.
Ochuko A. Evaluation of environmental noise pollution in Abuja, the capital city of Ilorin; 2013.
Anomohanran O, Iwegbue CMA, Oghenerhoro IO, Egbai IJC. Investigation of Environmental Noise Pollution Level of Abraka in Delta State, Nigeria, Trends in Applied Sciences Research. 2008;3(4):292-297
Ighoroje ADA, Marchie C, Nwobodo ED. Noise induced hearing impairment as an occupational risk factor among Nigerian traders, Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences. 2004;9(1&2):9- 14.
Zannin PHT, Ferrera AMC, Szeremetta B. Evaluation of noise pollution in urban parks. environmental monitoring assessment. 2006; 118:423-433.
Ijaiya H. The legal regime of noise pollution in Nigeria. Beijing Law Review; 2016.Retrieved from Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/blr.51001
Gehring U, Tamburic L, Sbihi H, Davies HW, Brauer M. Impact of Noise on Ear. Journal of Acoustics Society of America. 2014;47(1):343-352.
Dzhambov GD, Dimitrova GH. March 16) Acoustical control of worship spaces; 2005. Retrieved from Technologies for Worship Magazine December 20, 2016).