Effects of Grog Additions on Some Refractory Properties of Raw (Abusoro) Kaolin Clay Deposit for Furnace Lining

Main Article Content

A. O. Aluko
C. O. Ikubuwaje

Abstract

The influence of the weight of grog on some refractory properties of raw Abusoro clay samples found in Abusoro Village, Ondo State, Nigeria was evaluated. These samples were presented for refractory tests (apparent porosity, linear shrinkage, refractoriness, bulk density and cold crushing strength). The weights of the grog were varied from 20-40 wt. % in the blend. The chemical and microstructural examinations of the untreated alumino-silicate Abusoro clay samples indicated that they are abundant in silica, SiO2 (62.74wt. %) and alumina, Al2O3 (31.42wt. %). Other minor compounds found are Fe2O3 (1.43%), K2O (0.30%) with no trace amounts of MgO (0.00); therefore, they are regarded as alumino-silicate. Particular observation is made on MgO with zero amounts and the total of K2O + Na2O + MgO which are less than 2% in the clay samples. These results signify that the clay possesses high viability for manufacturing of refractory bricks, pulp and paper, ceramics, fertilizers, paint and cement. The performance evaluations of the refractory bricks measured indicated acceptable and satisfactory results vis-à-vis standard refractory properties for refractory fireclay bricks. However, the apparent porosity (43.2%) and CCS (21.21MPa) obtained for Abusoro clay sample at 30% weight of grog may as well be suitable for insulating refractory applications. The high apparent porosity could be an indication of high content of silicon oxide in the raw clay.

Keywords:
Refractory bricks, alumino-silicate, grog, abusoro, X-Ray diffractometer

Article Details

How to Cite
Aluko, A. O., & Ikubuwaje, C. O. (2020). Effects of Grog Additions on Some Refractory Properties of Raw (Abusoro) Kaolin Clay Deposit for Furnace Lining. Advances in Research, 21(9), 180-191. https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2020/v21i930245
Section
Original Research Article

References

Njoka EN, Ombaka O, Gichumbi JM, Kibaara DI, Nderi OM. Characterization of clay from Tharaka Nithi County in Kenya for industrial and agricultural applications, Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015;9:228-43

Iyasara Adindu C, Ekenyem C. Stan, Okafor Geoffrey, Moses Joseph, Nwabuna N. P. and Nnachi Benjamin. Influence of grog size on the performance of NSU clay-based dense refractory bricks, America Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. 2016;4:7-12.

Miranda-Trevino J.C. and Coles CA. Kaolinite properties structure and influence of metal Retention on PH. Appl. Clay Sci. 2003;23:133-39.

Trickova M, Matlova L, Dvorska l, Parlik. Kaolin, bentonite and zeolites as feed supplements of animals: Health advantage and risks, Vet. Med-Czech. 2004;49:389-99.

Mark U. Characterization of Ibere and Oboro Clay Deposits in Abia Sitate, Nigeria for Refractory Application, International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences. 2010;6: 296-305.

Omotoyinbo JA, Oluwole, O.O. Working properties of some selected Refractory clay deposits in South Western Nigeria, Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering.2008;9:487 – 94

Wilson M. Formation of clay materials in soil: Past, Present and Future Prospective. Clay Miner. 1999;34:7-25.

Ochieng Ombaka. Characteristics and classification of clay minerals for potential application in Rugi ward, Kenya, African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology.2016;10:415-31.

Landoulsi O, Megriche A, Calvet R, Espitalier F, Ferreira JMF, Mgaidi A. Effect of heating and acid activation on the structure and surface properties of a kaolinite-illite-Smectite clayey mixture. Miner. Process J.2013;6:13-20

Shitta KA. Lithostratigraphy of Nigeria–An overview, Proceedings of 32nd workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University - Stanford, California. 2007;1–9.

Rahaman, M. A., Malomo, S. “Sedimentary and Crystalline Rocks of Nigeria”, in “Tropical soils of Nigeria in engineering practice”, edited by S. A. Ola, A.A. Balkema/Rotterdam.1983;17-38

Chesti AR. Refractories: Manufacturing, Properties and Application, Delhi, Prentice Hall of India, Private Limited.1986;1-111

ASTM C20 Standard Test Method for Apparent Porosity, Water Absorption, Apparent Specific Gravity and Bulk Density, Volume 15, ASTM International, Philadelphia, U. S. A.

Norsker H. The Self-reliant potter: refractories and kilns, Friedr. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Vieweg & Sohn.1987

Bochraraov S, Gemsimov EA. Technology of silicate materials, Engineering press, Bulgaria; 1977.

ASTM C133-97. Standard Test Method for cold crushing strength and modulus of rupture of refractories, ASTM International, Conshohocken, PA, www.astm.org.2015

ASTM C133-97: Standard Test Method for Cold crushing strength and Modulus of Rupture of Refractories, ASTM International, Philadelphia, U. S. A.1997.

Yami AM, Umaru S. Characterization of some Nigerian clay as refractory Materials for lining, Continental J. Engineering Sciences. 2007;30-35

Nnuka EE, Agbo UJE. Evaluation of the Refractory Characteristics of Otukpo Clay deposits, N. S. E. Technical Transaction. 2000;35:34-36

Gupta GP. Elements of Fuels, Furnaces and Refractories, 5th Edition Second Reprint, Khanna Publishers, New-Delhi 110006.2008

Sanni AG. Production of Prototype Refractories Bricks from Oza-Nagogo clay, Research paper presented at the In – house Seminar of the National Metallurgical Development Centre, Jos, Nigeria; 2005

Shuaib-Babata YL, Ambali IO, Ibrahim HK, Ajao KS, Elakhame ZU, Aremu NI, Odeyemi OM. Assessment of Physico-Mechanical Properties of clay Deposits in Asa Local Government Area of Kwara State Nigeria for Industrial Applications, Journal of Research Information in Civil Engineering. 2019;16:2727-53.

Falodun EO, Folorunsho DO, Oke SR, Borode JO. Investigating the effects of High Alumina Cement and Silca Sand on the suitability of Ikere Ekiti Clay for Refractory Application, American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER). 2017;6:24-28.

Aliyu MA, Musa U, Mohammed IA, Sadiq MM. A comparative study on the refractory properties of selected clays in North Central Nigeria, Academic Research Journal. 2013;3:393-98.

Adamu HA, Ibrahim ME, Isa IK, Jimoh SO. Investigating the Refractory Property of Jalingo International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. 2018;9:1-4.

Muhammadu MM. An investigation on Refractory Clays properties for applications in Metallurgical Industries in Nigeria, International Journal of Advanced Research. 2013;1:200-7.

Titiladunayo IF, Fapetu OP. Selection of Clay for furnace lining in a Pyrolysis process, Journal of Emerging Trends in engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS). 2011;2:934-45.

Grim RE. Clay Mineralogy, 2nd ed. New York, Mc Graw – Hill; 1968.

Musa U, Aliyu MA, Sadiq MM, Muhammed IA, Issah AG, Mohammed AD. A Comparative Study of the Refractory Properties of Selected Clays in Niger State, Nigeria. Advance in Biotechnology and Chemical Processes. 2012;2:1-5.

Onyeji LI. Analysis and characterization of Nyikangbe clay, Chanchaga LGA Niger State; 2010.

Omotoyinbo JA, Oluwole OO, Borode JA. Effects of Potters clay additive on the moulding properties of Igbokoda silica sand, Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science. 1997;3:346-52.

Onuoha C. Use of local clays for the Production of Porcelain Pin Insulators, A Thesis Submitted to the Postgraduate School, Federal University of Technology Minna, Published. 2013;1-149.

Abdullahi MY, Samaila U. Characterization of Some Nigerian Clays as refractory Materials for Furnace Linings, Continental J. Engineering Science. 2007;2:30–35.

Omowumi OJ. Characterization of some Nigerian clay as refractory materials for furnace lining, Nigerian Journal of Engineering Management. 2001;2:1-4.

Shuaib-Babata YL, Yaru SS, Abdulkareem S, Bukari YO, Ambali IO, Ibrahim HK, Ajao KS, Mohammed GA. Characterization of Baruten Local Government Area of Kwara State (Nigeria) fire clays as suitable refractory materials, Nigeria Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH). 2018; 37:374-86

Osarenmwinda J, Abel CP. Performance Evaluation of Refractory Bricks produced from locally sourced Clay Materials, J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. 2014;18:151-57.

Chester JH. Refractories, Production and Properties, the Iron and Steel Institute, London, UK. 1973;4-13:295-315.

Chukwudi BC. Characterization Performance and evaluation of the refractory property of Nsu clay deposit in Imo state Nigeria. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. 2008;9:487-94.

Ndaliman MB. Refractory properties of Termite Hills under varied proportions of additives Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practice and Technologie. 1999;161-66.

Manukaji JU. The Effect of Sawdust addition on the Insulating Characteristics of Clays from Federal Capital Territory of Abuja, Infer. J. Eng. Res. Appl. 2013;3: 6-9.

Obidiegwu EO, Esezobor DE, Agunsoye JO, Lawal GI. Enhancement of Insulating Refractory properties of Selected Nigeria Fire – Clays Using Coconut Shell, Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering. 2015;3:458-68.

Aman B, Hossain SKS, Mahji MR. Preparation and Characterization of clay bonded high strength silica refractory by utilizing agriculture waste, Boletin DE LA SOCIEDAD ESPANOLA DE CERAMICA Y VIDRIO. 2017;56:256-62

Bam SA, Gundua DT, Edeoja AO. Evaluation of thermo-mechanical behaviour of Clay-Silica Sand blends for bricks production, International Journal of Res. Sci. 2015;3:61-66.

Aderibigbe DA. Performance Evaluation of Refractory Bricks Produced from locally Sourced Clay Materials, Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 2014;18:151-157.

Krivandin, V. and Markov, B. Metallurgical Furnaces, 1st Edition, Mir Publishers, Moscow; 1980.

Idenyi N.E. Non-Metallic Materials Technology, Strait Gate Communication, Enugu, Nigeria; 2002.

Misra MI. Refractories, Their Manufacture, Properties and Uses, 4th Edition SMT, Lakshmi Misra, Krishna Colony, Ghamapur, Jabalpur, M.P. India. 1975;8-13:22-42.

Nigeria Geological Survey Agency. Geological of Ondo State published by the authority of the Federal Republic of Nigeria; 2006.