Cashew Growth and Canopy Dynamics as Influenced by Manuring in a Guinea Savanna Agro-Ecology of Nigeria

Main Article Content

Beatrice Abanum Nduka
Olorunfemi Sunday Ojo Akanbi
Idrisu Mohammed
Seun Adewale Adeosun
Osasogie Ugioro
Kehinde Olusola Oyeledun
Adeyemi Favour Okunade


A two-year experiment was conducted to study the response of manuring on growth and canopy development on three-year-old Cashew trees. The experiment was laid in a randomized complete block design, with three replications. Soil characteristics including the chemical and physical properties were analyzed before and after the experiments. Fecti-plus organic pelletized fertilizer was applied at different rates of 0,750.6 and 1,501.2 kg/ha-1 respectively around the circumference of the tree. Before the application, the fertilizer sample was also analyzed. Data collected were plant height, stem girth, canopy dynamics which includes: Canopy diameter, canopy radius, canopy spread (North-South and East-West directions), canopy volume, canopy ground cover and percentage ground cover. The results from the pre soil sample show a relatively low status but were significantly enhanced after the application of the pelletized organic fertilizer (Ferti-plus). The soil nutrient composition of Oc, Om, N, K, Na, Ca and Mg+ was significantly highest in the plots having 1,501.2 kg/ha-1 treatments. Generally, there was a significant increase in the soil nutrient with the addition of pelletized fertilizer in respective of the rate of application. Also the results on the canopy dynamic in terms of canopy volume, spread and diameter revealed better development with the use of 1501.2 kg/ha-1 pelletized fertilizer and significantly different to 750.6 kg/ha-1 and those in the no-manure (control)plots. Meanwhile, the use of pelletized organic fertilizer gave superior growth and canopy development. It also influenced the growth of the Cashew plants, as well as the physical and chemical properties of the soil status.

Cashew, canopy, pelletized fertilizer, soil

Article Details

How to Cite
Nduka, B. A., Akanbi, O. S. O., Mohammed, I., Adeosun, S. A., Ugioro, O., Oyeledun, K. O., & Okunade, A. F. (2020). Cashew Growth and Canopy Dynamics as Influenced by Manuring in a Guinea Savanna Agro-Ecology of Nigeria. Advances in Research, 21(9), 80-88.
Original Research Article


Grieve M. Cashew nut. A modern herbal; 2004.
Available: 29.html#des

Dendena B, Corsi S. Cashew, from seed to market: A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 2014;34(4):753-772.
DOI: 10.1007/s13593-014-0240-7

Kasuga LJF. Performance of selected varieties of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in the polyclonal seed orchards in South-East Tanzania. Paper Presented at the International Cashew Conference: Cashew, People and Environment, Kampala, Uganda; 2010.

Lovett PN, Haq N. Diversity of the sheanut tree (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn.) in Ghana. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 2000a;47:293-304.

Yan W, Yamamoto K, Yakushido KI. N release from livestock waste compost pellets in barley fields. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 2001;47:675-683.
DOI: 10.1080/00380768.2001.10408432

Prothanee A, Wanapat S, Wachirapokom C. Cassava-legume intercropping: A potential food feed system for dairy farmers. In: Use of Cassava as Animal Feed; 2007.

Arakawa Y. Pelletization of composted manure improves the phyto availability of contained phosphorus. Jpn. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 2012;83:249–255.

Turell FM. Comparative nocturnal thermal budgets of large and small citrus trees. Ecology. 1965;46:25-34.

Tripathy P, Sethi K, Patnaik AK, Mukherjee SK. Nutrient management in high density cashew plantation under coastal zones of Odisha. International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management. 2015;6(1):093-097.
DOI: 10.5958/0976-4038.2015.00025.1

SAS System for Windows Version 9.3. SAS Institute. Cary, NC; 2011.

Egbe NE, Ayodele EA, Obatolu CR. Soil and Nutrition of Cacao, Coffee, Kola, Cashew and Tea. 1989;28-46.

Ibedu MA, Unambra RPA, Udealor A. Soil management strategies in relation to farming system development in the South-Eastern Agriculture zone of Nigeria. Paper Presented at the National Farming System Research Workshop, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. 1988;26-29.

Panda H. The Complete book on cashew (cultivation, processing and By-products). ISBN 9788178331560 Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.; 2013.

Ipinmoroti RR, Akanbi OSO, Daniel MA, Adebowale LA, Adewoye GA, Makinde EA, Kayode CO. Potentials of NPK and organic fertilizers on growth performance of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) seedlings on degraded typic alfisol soils in Ibadan, Nigeria. J Agr Sci Technol. 2011;1:876–881. ISSN: 1939–1250.

Ewulo BS, Ojeniyi SO, Akanni DA. Effect of poultry manure on selected soil physical and chemical properties, growth, yield and nutrient status of tomato. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2008;3(9):9-14.

Akanbi, Togun. The influence of maize stover compose and nitrogen fertilizer on growth, yield and nutrient up-take of Ammaranth. Scientia Horticulture. 2002;93: 1-9.

Onyekwere IN, Ano AO, Ezenwa MIS, Osunde AO, Bala. Assessment of exchangeable acidity soil of Cross River, Nigeria. In Agricultural Productivity and Rural Poverty. 2003. Environmental Implication. 2002-2007.

Adeoye GO, Adeoluwa OO, Oyekunle M, Sridhar MK, Makinde EA, Olowookere AA. Comparative evaluation of organo-mineral fertilizer (OM) and mineral fertilizer (NPK) on yield and quality of maize (Zea mays (L) Moench). Nigeria Journal of Science. 2008;18:132-137.

Olatunji OO, Aderinola OA, Babajide PA, Ewetola EA, Lawal BA, Owoade FM, Oyeyiola YB, Olayiwola AO. Effect of poultry manure on soil physic chemical properties, aggregate stability and biomass yield of Panicum maximum. International Journal of Current Research. 2012;4(4):13-16.

Ojeniyi SO, Amusan OA, Adekiya AO. Effect of poultry manure on soil physical properties, nutrient uptake and yield of cocoyam (Xanthosoma saggitifolium) in Southwest Nigeria. American-Eurasian Journal Agriculture and Environment Science. 2013;13(1):121-125.

Khaled AS, Mona G, El-Kader A, Zeinab MK. Effect of soil amendments on soil fertility and sesame crop productivity under newly reclaimed soil conditions. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 2012;8(3): 1568–1575.

Hussain GAJ, van Ballegooijen AA, Jardine M, Collier Cameron A. The coronal topology of the rapidly rotating K0 Dwarf AB Doradus. I. Using Surface Magnetic Field Maps to Model the Structure of the Stellar Corona. The Astrophysical Journal. 2002;575(2).

Azam-Ali SH, Judge EC. Small-scale cashew nut processing. FAO, Rome. 2001;70.

Tolla TD. Effects of moisture conditions and management on production of soybean. Agronomy Journal. 2004;102: 1149-1157.

Hemery GE, Savill PS, Pryor SN. Applications of the crown diameter stem diameter relationship for different species of broadleaved trees. Forest Ecology and Management, Livingston. 2005;215:285-294.

Santos J, dos Paula Neto F. de, Higuchi N, Leite HG, Souza AL, de Vale AB. Do. Modelos estatísticos para estimar a fitomassa acima do nível do solo da floresta tropical Úmida da Amazônia Central. Revista Árvore, Viçosa. 2001;25(4):445-454.

Silva KMB. de, Silva PSL. de, Almeida FAG. de. Regressions equations for plant height estimation in cashew trees. Revista Ceres, Viçosa. 2004;51(295):405-409.