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Anacardium occidentale gum exudate was analyzed for physicochemical, spectroscopic and rheological characteristics. Physicochemical analysis revealed that the gum is mildly acidic, ionic, extremely rich in carbohydrate and calcium. GCMS spectrum revealed the presence of some carboxylic acids, ketone and alkanes. The FTIR spectrum of the gum closely resembled those of other polysaccharides. Scanning electron micrograph revealed the presence of pores containing particles with irregular shapes. The average value of intrinsic viscosity of the gum was 3.28 dL/g, which compared favourably with those obtained for some plant gums. From the Huggins, Kraemer and Power law models, it was deduced that there is absence of molecular association and that the conformation of the gum is more rod like. Viscosity of the studied gum was found to be greatly influenced by the presence of urea, K+, Ca2+ and Al2+. Anarcadium occidentale gum exhibited a non-Newtonian property with characteristics dilatant and shears thickening properties.